CHAPTER 8.-- NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS

12/14/16

A.                INTRODUCTION

At one time non-Christian religions were thought of as existing overseas in faraway countries where the religions developed. The only practitioners of these world religions in America were to be found among foreigners or perhaps some mavericks connected with a university campus. These people gathered in small groups in secret places and certainly not in foreign looking temples. Obviously no educated non-ethnic would become a member.

The advent of modern mass movements of the world's peoples has radically altered the religious mosaic of American life. All of the non-Christian religions have been transplanted here, complete with temples, idols, and intricate ritual, with internet posting of calandars & daily religious services. A Gallop survey indicates that more than one fourth of Americans believe in reincarnation or transmigration of the soul as taught in Eastern religions. Among teenagers, more likely to follow rock music stars, the figure rises to 30 percent. In some of Americas schools, Yoga is being used to relax ADHD students, and some adults use Yoga as a weight control system. Little do they know that Hindus find this troubling, for Hindus use Yoga as a path to Nirvana via Karma. [see: Hindu America Foundation web site, Domestic Policy/Aditional Policy Papers]

The troubled world of the 21st C., especially in MENA, Islam has not only devastated Christian populations, but also sent thousands of Muslim fleeing for refuge... radically changing the face of life and religious culture of Europe and the US. The world's response has been: Political Correctness, resulting in political and religious corruption of the older culture. Fear of radicalized Muslim terrorists is devastating normal societies, while empathy for the displaced refugee, especially women and children has opened borders, pocketbooks and hearts. The sensitive Christian sees this invasion as a potential work of God, providing opportunity of evangelizing the peoples of the10/40 window, so impregnable to the Gospel.

Another factor to be noted is that thousands of non-immigrant Americans are also enthusiastically involved in the practice of non-Christian religions. Not only has the foreign mission field come to North America, but they are also making converts, for instance one mission who practice Hinduis. It is a sobering reality to note that Muslim make up 1% of our population = 3.3 M, Buddhists .7%, Hindus .7%, Jews 2% and 23% claim no religious affiliation. Only 71% claim various 'forms' of Christianity.

A disconcerting trend is non-Christians in government agencies. President Clinton established the White House Tradition to celbrate "iftar" annually. It celebrates the Muslim month-long fast called Ramadan, with a meal in the White House. Muslem have made their way into our government, two Muslim congressmen: Andre Carson, D.IN,[2007-] and Keith Ellison, D.MN [2003-7] Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton had a Muslim personal house person as well as another personal assistant, Huma Abedin, who spent earier years growing up in Saudi Arabia. Several others have had sensitive places in the Federal Government. Interesting little is known of Hindus or Buddhists in government employ.

American culture has certainly been impact by Buddhist teachings of reincarnation and Zen meditation, especially in the cult counter culture, Yoga exercises for weight loss, and in the educational community for relaxing students. It is quite amazing that Christian teachings have been so poorly communicated by churches and Christian parents, that they have been replaced by fascination with non-Christian teachings, often trumpeted by zealous professors in educational settings, film moguls in Holywood and rapsters of the counter-culture music venue.

Time magazine [9-26-16 p.36] included an interesting essay by Sussanna Schrobsdorf entitled, "the Pursuit of Happy-ish" in which she chronicalled her rather typical American experience with yoga. She entitled it, "My life as a 'None' and other tales from the ranks of the unafiliated and the agnostic". [my emphasis]. She opines that she is like a lot of other 'women of certain age' who have taken up yoga. She learned the Sanscrit names of the various movements and wondered if "Someday I'll wake up in an ashram in India only to discover that 'half the people there are from Brooklyn or some other stressed-out part of the US'". She continues that in the room where they do their routine, there may be "a  little statue of a Hindu god in the front of the room".... such as Ganesh, the Elephant God, who "in India he is considered a remover of obstacles". She also suggested she  "was a little seduced by the ritualistic part of yoga... by chanting Ganesh mantras in Sanscrit... the 'om-ing' ... which make you feel virtuous". Then half-heartedly she opines, "more embarrassing, I had half expected Ganesh to remove a few of my personal obstacles".

She speaks of her "casual pursuit of spirituality" and "being agnostic about God", about being "spiritual but not religious", about being "an acolyte of the church of self-improvement", about "choosing appealing bits of other faiths to improve my lot" which is "the norm for the self-centered American culture". She say that this inicludes "about a quarter of the population or 56 million", quoting a Pew Research report of 2015. In a few years "nones will be the largest relgion in America". Tragically she concludes her essay by seaking of her mother's dying visit to her empty Catholic church wearing an oxygen mask, accompanied by an Atheist dad. Her mother was "certain she would go 'home'". As I watched her slip away, "I longed for faith".Then adds a friend suggested "perhaps a desire to identify with a higher power is not an accident of our design". Eactly! God has so designed us, that we should desire HIM. Wow... has she not put into words the sad state of our American society... perhaps the Pew study is a wakeup call as to how many.

B.                 AMERICAN MUSLIMS—3.3 MILLION [2016] {1% US / RUSSIA 7%}

It may be hard to believe, but Islam is the third largest religion in North America, after Christianity and Judaism. In the United States there are up to 3,000,000 followers of Allah, the Muslim god, to whom they submit. [In Canada, there are another 650,000.] For many American Muslims it is important to be an integral part of the worldwide family of Islam, which encompasses 1.2 billion or so, about one in five, making it the world's largest non-Christian religion. Contrary to popular opinion, non-Arab Muslim outnumber by 3 to 1 Arab Muslim. It is estimated that there are three million Arab Americans, most of whom were born here, and belong to several religious persuasions. In fact, the four nations with the largest number of Muslim are outside the Middle East: Indonesia - 228 million [80% of population], Pakistan - 145 million [97%], Bangladesh - 131 million [88%] and India – 1 billion [12%]. There are some 40 nations with a majority Muslim. The Zwemer Institute has identified 900 ethno-linguistic Muslim people groups which indicates a wide diversity of backgrounds.

The growth of Islam in the world is nothing short of phenomenal. It began in AD 622 when Mohammed, the founder, fled from Mecca and conquered Yathrub, and renamed it Medina, Arabia. Ten years later the Prophet was dead, but Islam's Caliphs mounted campaigns that by 732 brought Islam to the door of Paris. The leaders demanded allegiance of all people in their path. They either saluted the crescent and green banner, the symbol and color of Islam, or died. Two exceptions were made, however, for Jews and Christians were protected, although taxed and made Dhimis [second rate people], because they were "people of the Book." NOTE: following map finder Salatomatic will locate any of 1200 Mosques US. 20% schools

       Map Shows Which States Will See Influx Of Mosques And Muslim "Refugees"    

Although Mecca is the birthplace of Mohammed and cradle of Islam, Cairo, Egypt, is the center of Islam and the theological training base for Muslim evangelists. Jerusalem, boiling point of the Middle East and Islam’s third holiest city after Mecca and Medina, is the caldron of Islam. However, London is the capitol of Islam in Europe, with 50 Islamic newspapers.

Europe is being heavily invaded by Islam, which has become the largest religious minority in Europe, comprising some 15 million. Some Muslim leaders are seeking to distance themselves from militant Islam by establishing a EuroIslam. The growth rate is 6.5% in 2002. By 2014 it is estimated that Islam will be the second largest religious group [after Catholicism] in Europe. It is currently second largest in Belgium, France [10% or 6 million], Italy, Spain and Austria. After the Orthodox church, Islam is the second in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Russia and Serbia [World Pulse 1-02] The European Union is said to have some 20 million identifying themselves as Muslim. If Turkey should gain membership with its 75 million Muslim, although non-Arab, Islam would be a major factor in the EU.

Islam in America has nearly a dozen branches, but the best known is “American Society of Muslims [ASM]” promoted in the Muslim Journal [1972]and formerly led by Imam W. Deen Mohammed, the son of the founder of the Nation of Islam which is now led by Louis Farakhan. Farakhan, interesting to note, was once an acolyte in the Episcopal church. The first mosque was built about the turn of the century in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, complete with exclusive Muslim cemetery oriented toward Mecca. Islam was brought by Muslim imigrants from Arab countries and other lands where Islam rules. Muslims in America are to be found primarily in the larger cities, such as Chicago, which has 140 Mosques, but "Muslims are found in nearly every American town." They have made a special target of Black Americans, who account for 60% of converts. One estimate suggests that 25% of Muslim in America are African Americans, 26% are Arab, 34% are south Asians. Pakistani Muslim in US are very successful: 15,000 are medical doctors. Nineteen percent of American Muslim make over $100,000 per year, where only 17% of other Americans.

Why are Blacks joining Islam? It has been suggested that the Black church is too female oriented. Islam gives the Black male a positive image of a god who is non-White and non-American. Christianity was felt to be inadequate. Islam addresses issues the church gave up on.

The ISIC Bulletin, April/May 1996 indicates that 44% of the Muslim in the US are American born. White American converts number 40,000 to 75,000, while Black Americans number one to two million. Most of the Whites and Blacks were raised in the church before conversion. Most Black converts join the orthodox Sunni branch, however, 10,000 have joined Farakhan’s Nation of Islam, a much more radical group. Most White American Muslim follow Sufi [mystical] Islam. It is said that the of the Anglos who have converted to Islam, the larger percentage are women who have married Muslim men. Perhaps 28,000 convert to Islam annually, mostly from the Black community. Another 7,000 women marry Muslim each year.

The largest Muslim concentration in the United States is in New York City and northern New Jersey, where 700,000 from twenty five ethnic backgrounds live, 300,000 from Iraq. In Detroit, Michigan's Arab Village, the largest concentration of Arabs in the country, there are 300,000 Iraqi Arabs, with 40,000 from Chaldea alone, making it the second largest Chaldean population after Baghdad. In Dearborn, a suburb of Detroit there are 200,000 Muslim. Los Angeles (700,000 Muslims) has a total of 30,000 to 40,000 Syrians, Lebanese, Pakistanis (10,000), Indians (5,000), Yugoslavians (5,000), Turks (5,000), and Afgahanis. In 2005 an Arab American National Museum was opened highlighting Arab Americans who have come here from the 1500s. www.theaanm. In Dearborn, Mich., is the largest Mosque seating 3,000, The Islamic Center of America. [Shia, 786,000]Dome is 150' high & Mineretts 10 stories high. cost $14 million [2005]          Islamic Center of America.jpg

Bridge International indicates that in 2007 Arabs are turning to Christ in the US in phenomenal numbers, especially through internet evangelism. He says some 30,000 have responded positively to the Gospel, primarily because of disenchantment with Moslem killing Moslem. They want peace and have found it in Christ. He says another thousand in Saudi Arabia have also responded.

Funded with Arabian and Libyan petroleum dollars, Islam is "on the move in a manner unmatched since its conquests of North Africa and Europe in the seventh and eighth centuries." In America the number of Muslim has multiplied by six in fifteen years. This growth, as reported by the Islamic Center in Washington, DC, includes 3,000 Islamic centers found in most states across the country, including 1,400 mosques. Dr Timothy George, Dean of Beeson Divinity School of Samford University, Alabama, in his DVD entitled Christianity and Islam, indicates in 2004 there are up to 7,000,000 Muslim and 13,000 mosques. That number probably includes information centers. [accuracte = 3.3 million and 2100 Mosques 2016]

A few mosques, such as the head mosque in Washington DC are ornate structures costing millions of dollars. Toledo, OH, boasts a three million dollar mosque on the beltway east of the city. The mosque services five hundred families, contains a school and an undertakers room where Muslim preparations for burial can be performed. The extensive complex is to be doubled in size and contain a retirement settlement. A 1100 acre complex was planned in northern NM, called Dar-Al-Islam, to include an Institute for Advanced Islamic Studies, granting masters and doctoral degrees to 400 students. The project is on hold. Muslim leaders are currently being trained in Detroit.

Islamic concern to gain the attention of students is indicated by the 300 chapters of student organizations planted on college campuses. Seventy-five thousand students from Islamic countries now form one of the largest groups of international students in North American universities and colleges. No American has been a greater promoter of Islam than former heavyweight boxing champion Mohammed Ali, who has been called by many "Islam's most loquacious supporter."

Muslim are highly organized in North America. They have formed numerous associations for those involved in the various professions including teachers, a Muslim Bar Association, police, chaplains [100] who work in the prisons . The American Muslim Council is the government recognized Ecclesiastical Endorsing Agency for two Muslim chaplains presently serving the 10,000 Muslim serving in the military. There is at least one Muslim mayor and Muslim holidays are now being recognized in NYC schools. Finally, the Islamic Circle of North America is funding numerous projects with several objectives. First, to “reach out with the message of Islam and save society from self destruction. Second,  to reach out to the media and show them Islam is about being loving, merciful, tolerant and just. Third, to reach out to their youth who are disenchanted.”

Here in North America, there are 10 different associations competing with each other for membership with very different agendas. The problem they face, according to one Muslim leader, is to balance the interests of the African American Muslims with those of the immigrants from 60 different countries [USNews & WR August 5, 02]. Muslim since 9-11 are among themselves divided into two widely differing camps. There are the moderates, who here in America are basically following the American dream. Then there are the 15 percent who are radical and aggressive, who seek to implement the traditional, literal Quranic message first delivered by Mohammed and those who followed with world conquest in mind. Tragically their agenda includes the destruction of Israel and any who support her, basically the United States. Most of the Mosques founded in the last ten years have been funded with Saudi money of the Wahhabi persuasion which is politically active and fundamentalistic.

Numerous sects have developed within the Muslim fold. Leo Rosten suggests there are seventy in the United States. Our concern is to note three of those sects.

BAHAISM---724,000. First,  Bahaism began in Persia in 1844. The largest Bahai temple is located in Evanston, Illinois, but 900 groups totaling 724,000 members flourish across the country. Bahaism appeals to the educated; therefore, it has established 230 chapters on campuses. One of Bahai's eclectic roots is Islam. The name Bahai means "brother" in Arabic and indicates the desire of the group to be inclusive. Said to be the fastest growing non-Christian religion.

A second sect is the Ahmadiya Movement. The movement began in 1908 in India. It, too, is eclectic and is very evangelistic in America.

The third sect is the Black Muslim Movement: The Black Muslim movement once known as the World Community of Islam in the West. Although the movement was denounced as unorthodox in the 1950s because of its alleged use of Islam to gain social and political ends, today its 500,000 adherents are generally accepted. In fact, Islam is making a concerted effort to win the blacks. That effort is most successful in converting African-Americans . "Parole officers and the police say that the Black Muslims are the best rehabilitation agency at work among Negro criminals today. They arrange parole for their converts and then carefully watch over them." [20% of prisoners who convert, convert to Islam = 350,000] It has been suggested that "it is highly probable that Islam will become eventually the religion of the Negro in America if present trends continue." In 1983 it was determined that 80 percent of Muslims living in Philadelphia were black. Perhaps that is an unrealistic prediction, but it should be a sobering warning to Christians that Islam is militant. It is estimated that 25% of Muslim in American are African-Americans.

IRANIANS. One large block of Muslims is from Iran. Unsettled conditions there in 1980 caused the number of Iranians migrating to the United States to escalate to 450,000 [officially 236,000 are resident] by 1990. Many are students, business people, tourists, and immigrants. Perhaps one half of one percent are Christians, but most Iranians are Muslim. Fifty percent of Iranians in America live in California, with other concentrations in New York, Boston, Chicago, and Texas.

Working among Iranian Christians in southern California is Shahrokh Afshar. He established the Fellowship of Iranian Christians in 1979 with the vision to establish as many Bible studies in southern California as the Lord leads.

 Another fellowship, Iranian Christians International, Inc., includes missionaries from Iran and other individuals interested in church planting among Iranian believers and directing evangelism towards winning Iranian Muslims to Christ. Ministries include staffing ten regional centers where Bible study, prayer, and worship are conducted in Persian; underwriting the printing of study materials in Persian and initiating national conferences for Iranian Christians.

AFGHANIS. John and Michele Marion of Laurel, MD, have established The Center of Peace and Hope in Christ for Afghanistan in Vienna, VA., with a web site www.afghanistanDC.com.

PALESTINIANS. Another Muslim group is composed of many of the Palestinians who have been migrating to America since Israel 'occupied' the land they considered theirs by right of lengthy occupancy. Discussion of the Palestinians is included in chapter 6.

PAKISTANIS. One hundred thousand Muslim immigrants from Pakistan have settled in various cities. They are equipped with an abundance of literature for recruiting adherents.  In a Muslim bookstore on Devon street, I purchased a map of the city of Chicago with 50 mosque locations imprinted on it. These mosques serve 300,000 Muslim. Some of these Pakistani immigrants may bring with them an attitude of militancy and radical Islam as taught in the 8000 Madrassas or religious schools. [Reader’s Digest,1-‘02, suggests the number of Madrassas at 40-50,000] President Musharraf recently announced in 2002, new laws banning the teaching of extremism in these schools. However, most of the Afghan radicals were taught in Pakistan.

BANGLADESHIS. Some 200,000 Muslim Bengalis have migrated to the US and Canada. Perhaps 80,000 live in NY & NJ. Ten thousand have settled in Detroit, while 6,000 live in Chicago and NYC. In the Big Apple there are two radio stations and two TV stations and five newspapers in Bengali. Two to three thousand live in Dallas and Houston. Niduhu Das has opened a Bangala Bible Correspondence School.

SAUDI ARABIA. Is home to two of Islam’s holiest sites, Mecca and Medina. It also provides 20% of America’s oil. The religious leaders are followers of a radical form of Islam known as Wahhabism, named for its leader, Wahhab. The religious leaders teach a xenophobia and abhorrence of the moral pollution of the West=US. Osama ben Laden was so trained. [see 6-13]

Church planting is the primary missionary activity of mission boards working among Arabs. Several Missions provide Bible correspondence courses that have proved to be effective in Muslim work. According to Bassam Madany, producer of the "Back to God Hour" aired in Chicago in Arabic, radio broadcasts in the Arabic are useful in areas where large concentrations of Arab Muslims exist. However, Muslim work is really a one on one friendship kind of evangelism. The Vern Rock’s, retired missionaries from Pakistan, engaged in such a ministry and established a small bookstore in their home in Chicago to help individuals obtain materials for witnessing to their Muslim friends and neighbors. They have since retired and moved to Girard, IL.

The largest ministry among Arab Muslims is that of the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention. They work in eight states. Several missions such as International Students, Inc., work among 4,000 Muslim students on college campuses. This is a great opportunity to send the gospel back into Muslim countries where the missionary cannot go.

Mr. and Mrs. Victor Khalil, Arab Christians from Egypt, have found that a coffee house ministry near a mosque and home Bible studies are effective ministries in Detroit. He has further learned that Iranian Muslims love to hear the Bible read to them in Arabic; therefore, he has recorded the entire Bible on cassette tapes. Arabic language classes have been initiated for those who wish to learn Arabic to witness to their Arab neighbors.

International Missions established a summer ministry to train missionaries and laymen to witness to Muslim and Hindu people in Flushing, New York, where 200,000 aliens live. speaking fifty languages. In 1995, fifty students enrolled in the Muslim program and twelve enrolled in the Hindu curriculum through which they could earn college credit. The Samuel Zwemer Institute offers a six week summer intensive training program called "Orientation to Ministry Among Muslims." Don McCurry, the director says, "The time for harvest and church planting among Muslims has come. The Zwemer Institute is helping to make this happen by awakening men and women in local churches to reach Muslims in their neighborhoods." The Institute is publishing McCurry's doctoral dissertation pinpointing the Muslim communities and how to reach them for Christ. Concerned individuals are forming into groups such as the Philadelphia Area Ministry to Muslims (PAMM) to think through ways to reach Muslims for Christ.

Interest in reaching Muslims is growing. Evangelical Baptist Mission sponsors an Arabic Bible Conference. The Fellowship of Faith for Muslims prepares a monthly prayer bulletin and, among others, supplies materials necessary for Muslim evangelism. Materials are ready, training programs are available, and missions are prepared to lead the way, but according to Raymond Joyce, long time Muslim missionary and executive director of the Fellowship of Faith for Muslims, among the churches of North America,

There is a tragic and almost total ignorance of what Islam really is. Where there is an attitude expressed, it is usually one of apathetic dismissal of the task of reaching the Muslim for Christ as being too hard and unproductive. So naturally there is little involvement

A Moroccan Christian who visited America said,

North American Christians have a unique opportunity to share Christ with Muslims at their doorstep. Thousands of students, visitors, temporary residents and workers from Muslim countries are scattered throughout the United States and Canada. You will find them in your neighborhood, in your shopping centers, in the work force. 

There are those who care that the Black are being evangelized by the Muslim. Rev. Carl Ellis, a Black Christian, established Project Joseph to educate Blacks about the Black Muslim movement. He effectively proclaims that the Black person can find “dignity,  African identity and global significance” in Jesus Christ. They also minister to those who leave Islam.

It is impressive that the Muslim world, where 40 nations having a majority population of Muslim, seems to be trying to unite. Fifty-four countries having a significant population of Muslims have formed a ‘United Nations of the Islamic world’ called The Organization of the Islamic Conference [OIC], headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Its primary objective is ‘to promote Islamic solidarity and cooperation’ by means of the inter-governmental organization.

Islam is significantly impacting the world, especially including Europe. London, England is said to be the European capital of Islam. There are 700 mosques, 1200 Quranic schools and an Islamic society on most campuses openly propagating Islam. More than a million of the city’s 11 million residents are Muslim. Ten thousand of these are British converts, some of whom are radical activists. [At the same time, only 2% of Englishmen go to church and the average age of those who do is 64.] France’s 60 million include 11% Muslim.

Map Shows Which States Will See Influx Of Mosques And Muslim "Refugees"Refugees from MENA will radically change the religious landscape of America as this map shows, 2016 where mosques will spring up.

If Christian missions are to make an effective impact on the Muslim world for Christ, including North America, just such a ‘United Nations of Mission Societies focused on the Muslim for Christ’ is needed. One interesting new development in world missions seeking to impact the Muslim world is a Latin American mission agency, PM International [PMI]. It seems that Ibero-Americans have an acceptance in the Muslim world other missionaries do not enjoy. The director, Marcos Amado, has established the Ibero-American Institute of Islamic Studies. This program unites 18 missionary organizations to train Spanish-speaking missionaries.

A number of good organizations now have Internet sites which make a lot of information available for those who wish to know the truth about Islam and its founder. It is difficult to wade through the information being purveyed by the liberal press; therefore, it is important to read the Koran and what those who were Muslim Background Believers [MBBs] have written from experience. Sites such as Kamil International Ministries Organization publish pictures which speak for themselves about radical Islam. The real truth is that the masses are stirred by the vitriolic hate of the Wahhabi schooled clerics, who emphasize those passages of the Koran which lend themselves to inciting violence and then distort truth and spin history, Judaism, Palestine, US and Christianity.

In September 2004 there was a conference of Muslim converts to Christianity in Washington, DC.

A group of believers are reaching out to the Arab community in the Denver Metro area. An Arabic speaking church is being established with an exMuslim pastor

We conclude on a happier note. The horrors of Muslim Jihadism in MENA and around the world have alerted and alarmed the Muslim world itself of its own spiritual bankruptcy. Literally millions are abandoning Dar al-Islam, the House of Islam. This has been chronicalled in a book widely researched entitled, A Wind in the House of Islam, by David Garrison [2014]. He says. "There are nine rooms in the house of Islam. A [Christian] wind is blowing in every one of them". The nine 'rooms' are areas of the world in which Islam has for 14 centuries thrived, expanding by Jihad and depriving their people of Truth by mimicking or counterfeiting Biblical Truth. Yes, Jesus is a prophet [but more than that He is the Son of God, which Mohammed denied]. Yes there is a Messiah, but He is not the Mahdi, [He is Jesus]. Yes, He is coming again, but not with the Mahdi to turn the world to Islam. It is tragic that 25% of the world has been so deceived, but happily they are now being exposed to the TRUTH 24/7 by such as SAT-7. Also Wycliffe Translators are routinely translating the Word of God into the world's languages at break-neck speed. Closed Muslim countries are expelling their people as refugees, many to the US, where they can legally hear the TRUTH and feel the safety and love of God through Christians here who love them with the Agape Love of God. We love life, not death!

Recemt converts from Islam have confessed that they were unaware that the Koran taught Jihadism! Now why doesn't that surprise us? Lots of Christians do not realize what Christianity teaches. They just aren't taught; therefore, most Muslim are absolutely aghast about this killing in the name of Allah and are turning to Christ in amazing numbers. Jesus soon return is exciting. That resitanct 10/40 window is crumbling.

C.                AMERICAN BUDDHISTS—5-6 MILLION, 1500 TEMPLES

There are 488 million Buddhists in the world. The UN formally recognized Buddhism as a world religion in 1999.There are 3.9 million Buddhists living in North America. They have migrated from nearly a dozen countries, but 28% came from Vietnam, 23% from Japan, 21% from China and nine, eight and seven percent from Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. Others came from Tibet.   

Over 3.5 million Japanese reside in the United States; one third in Hawaii where there are 200 Buddhist temples in Honolulu. Japanese migration began after 1885 when Japan permitted her people to leave the islands. The West Coast was the logical port of entry and remains the most popular place for Japanese to reside. There are 200 Buddhist temples in Los Angeles.

With the outbreak of the Second World War and the bombing of Pearl Harbor by Japan, American racial discrimination fell to a new nadir. One hundred thousand Japanese American citizens were, without provocation removed from their homes to concentration camps as far away as New Jersey. After the war many returned to the West Coast, but pockets of Japanese remained in coastal and mid American cities where they had been interned.

Several books have been written on the aftermath of the conflict with Japan. Consider John Dower’s , War Without Mercy, 1986, or Donald Shriver’s An Ethic for Enemies, or Hiroshima in America, by Robert Lifton, 1995, in which these men call for a cultural reconciliation. It seems the Japanese have trouble reconciling how their leaders bombed Pearl Harbor and Americans have trouble reconciling the bombing of non-military Hiroshima and Nagasaki as well as firebombing of Tokyo. A clear witness may well include repentance for the “sins of our ancestors” on both sides, according to Ned Hale of IVCF.

This ethnic group is one of the highest achievers of all of the minorities. In education, Japanese adults have more schooling than whites. The penchant for learning was brought with them, for Japan has the highest literacy rate in the world. The average income of the Japanese American is greater than the national average. Yet, discrimination remains present today.

Dianna Eck’s research at Harvard University indicates that they discovered over a period of three years, some 1500 Buddhist temples in the US. There are at least 40 different branches of Buddhism. The Sonrise Center for Buddhist Studies found that Buddhists have come primarily from 10 countries of Asia numbering nearly 1.5 million. One million come from three countries, Vietnam [412,000], Japan [330,000] and China [302,000]. About one third are members of six sects. The two largest being the Soka Gakkai/Nichiren Shoshu [300,000] and Buddhist Church of America [100,000].

Soka Gakkai is Japanese for ‘society for the creation of value’. It stresses self-reliance and personal improvement without worshipping a god or outside deity. Although many are Japanese others too are drawn to what they call ‘absolute happiness with self and others’. In 1996 they dedicated a $20 million retreat center in Fort Lauderdale, FL., called ‘the US Nature and Culture Center located on 125 acres. commemorating 20 years for SGI-USA. The 14 buildings, including a conference center which seats 1,000, is to service the 2300 believers in south FL as well as a place of pilgrimage for the 12 million followers worldwide. Soka Gakkai International is based in CA, and prepares a weekly news paper entitled, World Tribune.

There are nine major centers of Buddhist facilities: In the state of Washington, & in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Dallas, Chicago, Washington, DC; New York and Boston,

Buddhism as practiced in America may be divided into two broad categories. The oldest and largest groups are called non-meditative. They attend churches that very much resemble any denominational church. The Buddhist Churches of America began in 1899 when two Japanese missionaries of the Pure Land Sect came to America to work among the Japanese immigrants. There are 100 member churches divided into eight districts. Only two districts are not on the West Coast. The eastern district, which includes Cleveland, Chicago, New York, Seabrook (New Jersey), Detroit, the Twin Cities, and Washingon DC., indicates how widespread the Buddhist churches are.

(I attended the dedication of a Buddhist church in Seabrook, NJ, near my birthplace. Other than the use of the Japanese language, incense, and occasional sounding of percussion instruments, the rest of the service was not radically different, nor was the architecture of the building particularly foreign.)

The largest and fastest growing non meditative group is called Nichiren Shoshu of America. It is of the Sokagakkai Sect and includes 200 chapters. By effective conversion drives, 300,000 Americans have become members since 1960.

The second kind of Buddhism practiced in the United States is meditative. Membership statistics are not available, but many thousands of non-Orientals have become Zen enthusiasts within the last two decades. Meditative Buddhism tends to draw individuals instead of families. Many of the nonOrientals who became Buddhists came from the counterculture of the 1960s. Charles Prebish notes, "In the social domain, the most significant development for Buddhism in America was the emergence of a considerable counterculture, from which Buddhism was to recruit some of its most ardent supporters."

American Buddhism also was enhanced by the Death of God and Human Potential Movements of the 1960s. With attendant secularization and growing pluralism in America, a religion that postulated nontheism and a do it yourself kind of mysticism appealed to the bifurcated, under 35, religious searcher who was deeply disenchanted with his urban treadmill like existence.

The His Lai Buddhist temple [1988], is the largest Chinese Buddhist temple in North America. It is located in Hacienda Heights, CA, & cost $10 million. Hsi Lai means: "Coming to the West". The University of the West began at Hsi Lai. A Tibetan Buddhist temple and Retreat Center is located at Stewarts Point, CA. Sogyal Rinpoche is the leader of Tibetan Buddhism US. He founded RIGPA, a network of centers and groups which follow his teachings. His vision is to make Buddhist teachings available to as many as possible. Spiritual Case for Living and Dying Network, is a health care provider, using the Tibetan Book of Living and Dying.

Jim Stephens, who was a Buddhist for 14 years and studied for the Buddhist priesthood, founded the Sonrise Center for Buddhist Studies in Panorama City, CA..[Now headquartered at PO Box 116, Sierra Madre, CA]. For seven years he has gathered an extensive library of materials and developed training modules to teach individuals how to win to Christ the different schools of Buddhist thought: Theravada: [China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam], Hinayana: [Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka], Tibetan: [Bhutan, China, India, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia, Switzerland, Tibet], and Western: [Nichiren Shoshu, Zen].

The Tibetan Delai Lama, exiled in India, has made numerous visits to the US, and met with dignitaries. He has influenced the spread of Buddhism US, being verypopular.

Then of course there will be those who will try a ‘new thing’. In Denver. CO, the headlines noted that the first Christian-Buddhist service was held in St. Paul’s United Methodist Church. Who are the 50-70 who attend the weekly meditative service? One couple indicated the wife was United Church of Christ and the husband was Zen Buddhist. The leaders are a minister from St. Paul’s, a nun and an associate professor of religion at Iliff School of Theology in Denver who is a Tibetan Buddhist. The purpose is “to explore a kind of deep communion that transcends boundaries, that transcends prejudices, that opens to spiritual adventure because there’s nothing to fear”.

My! How they need to know the Lord Jesus Christ who really transcends all prejudices and boundaries.

D.                  CONFUCIANISM / SHINTOISM / TAOISM---139,000

Although there is no generic association between the religions of Buddhism and Confucianism, Shintoism, and Taoism, it is not uncommon to find Buddhists who also consider themselves to be followers of a second religion. Buddhists of China may also hold to Taoist or Confucianist beliefs. Those in Japan frequently are not only Buddhist but also Shintoist. In Hawaii, I visited temples where homage was paid to several religions in the same sanctuary.

In the United States there are 90,000 Confucianists, 25,000 Shintoists, and 56,000 Taoists. The refugees from Southeast Asia are frequently of a Buddhist heritage. They are treated in chapter 6. As far as is known, there is only minimal missionary work being done among American’s who are practitioners of the non-Christian religions, with no national vision for directed evangelism.

E.                 AMERICAN HINDUS—3 MILLION, 450 TEMPLES

Most [700 million] of the world's 900,000,000 Hindus live in India, but at least 3 million East Indians are included in the 10 million Asians living in the United States at the time of the 2000 census. Hindus make up a significatnt portion of the population of 7 countries: Bangladesh [11%], Bhutan [25%The Bochasanwasi Shri Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha, also known at BAPS, inaugurated what is reported to be one of the largest U.S. Hindu temples in Robbinsville, N.J.], Fiji [41%], Mauritas [50%], Nepal [89%], Sri Lanka [25%] and Bali [2 million]. The number of Hindus US is estimated to be one million. Accurate figures are not available because there is no central agency recording statistics of American Hindus. However, the Harvard Pluarlism Project discovered some 400 Hindu temples across the country. In Orlando, FL, they are building a Hindu University of America.

Many of the East Indians in the United States are professional people who migrated here for improved educational and job opportunities. In India, 50% of the people are illiterate and the per capita income is less than $30.00 per month. [India also has 300 million Dalits—Untouchables] Southern West Virginia provides jobs in the mining industry and medical field. Each year in the city of Beckley several hundred East Indians gather for an Indian festival called Diwali. They share Indian dishes and enjoy cultural events.

In the home of the Indian family an altar or shrine may be located in some prominent place. Offerings and homage are paid to the gods or idols selected from the Hindu pantheon of thirty three crores (estimated to be 330,000,000) of gods to assist him on his lengthy journey of 6,800,000 reincarnations [lifetimes] to attain Nirvana or perfect justice. Pictured above is the largest Hindu Temple in the US costing $18 million, sits on 162 acres in Robbinsville, NJ. It will seat 1,000 and cover 17.5 thousand square feet when fully dedicated in 2017. NOTE: Americanized structure!

In the Pittsburgh area several hundred Indian families have settled. A one-half million dollar shimmering white Hindu temple stands off the Parkway east of Pittsburgh near Monroeville. It is covered with carvings outside like the Tirupaths in South India. Hindus from all over the United States make pilgrimage to this shrine to venerate its idols and commemorate some anniversary. I visited this temple and attended the private services that were conducted by a Hindu priest who wore native garments and performed the ritual in an Indian language.

Numerous idols imported from India have been dutifully installed in the Sri Venkatesware temple. Photographing the statuary is forbidden with the explanation that the essence of the idols might be diminished.

Two Hindu temples have been constructed in the borough of Queens, New York City, for the convenience of several thousand Hindus in the area. In Flushing alone an estimated 21,000 East Indians live. The Ganesh Temple is the oldest Hindu temple [1970] in the US complete with 28 images & 10 priests. The First Baptist Church of Flushing is reaching out to its international community with ministries in eight languages. International Missions, Inc., is using the church facilities as a base of operations for its intensive summer training programs called Friendship International. Veteran missioCopying or reproduction of this image is prohibited - © Rekha Inc.naries teach classes for those who want to learn how to evangelize Hindu and Muslim people. One missionary said, "There may be some difficulty getting into India to do missionary work, but there is no such difficulty getting into Queens, New York City." However, a larger vision is needed to network missionary work to reach Hindus for Christ in North America.

Since 2000, amazing growth and sophistication has taken place in American Hinduism. Use of the internet has mushroomed. Daily Puja services are posted, along with 12 month pdf calandars may be down loaded. The Internet lists numerious Hindu Societies of various states. The Hindu American Foundation is an advocacy for the Hindu American community to sustain their Hindu Religious traditions. They want to retain the 1500 religious bodies or sects, with 360,000 churches, Mosques, Temples & Synagogues all peacefully co-existing. [2016]

In 2016 a brand new Hindu Temple was built in Melville, NY [Long Island], on 5 acres covering 50,000 square feet.

It is suggested that a million Americans of non Indian descent pratice Hinduism.

In 2016 a new USA postage stamp commemorating Divali published. Divali, the festival of lights, is a Hindu religious celebration observed by Hindus, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists worldwide. It was essentially a way for President Obama to recognize the diversity of religion practised here. US Postal Service To Issue Diwali Postal Stamp

1.                  Hare Krishna  [ISKCON] 100,000, 47 Temples, 16 Restaurants, 6 Farms

One of many sects of Hinduism is the Hare Krishna movement. Thousands [25 to 75,000] of disenchanted youth or college students give months of their lives to this cult as "an emphatic rejection of conventional affluent America." They were the ones who played the tublas [drums] and passed out flowers and literature in Miami, O’Hare and Los Angeles airports.

The Hare Krishna cult, founded in 1944, as the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) maintains fourtyseven centers and seven self-sustaining farms in the United States, and 20 international. The purposes of the movement are to explore the ideas presented in ancient India's Vedic literature, especially the Bhagavad Gita, and to teach Krishna consciousness throughout the English speaking world. The founder, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prahubapada, died leaving eleven disciples as spiritual masters in the United States. The master for the central zone, Swami Bhaktipada was leading the group in founding the new Vrindaban community on Hare Krishna Ridge in Moundsville, West Virginia. The Palace of Gold, as it is called is to be the crown jewel of the Krishna movement in America. The leader for all of America is the son of a Baptist minister, Srila Bhaktipada, who not only changed his beliefs, but also his name. However, he was convicted in 1987 of racketeering and accused of ordering the murders of two devotees. He was sentenced in 1996 to 20 years in prison but released early in 2004, but banned for life from all Hare Krishna temples. The current manager, Kuladri dasa says they are working hard to restore their reputation

The devotees live in a literal barn in rooms constructed in a loft over the sacred cows that they venerate. They eat a vegetarian diet, wear rustic clothes, and repeat "Hare Krishna" 2,000 times each day. Many hours are spent chanting over sacred mantras 1,728 times and then performing duties as prescribed by the leader. Now many of these devotees have grown up and are married professionals who have families. Some still attend 4:30 AM worship services and tithe 50% of their income, but this varies greatly. They are supposed to give up meat, tobacco, caffeine, illicit sex and gambling.

The palace, built at a cost of $500.000, is but one of a community of seven temples and gardens to be built at a cost of $45 million on the 5,000 acre property. A restaurant and motel offer accommodations for the visitors who come to see what George Clark of Ohio State University says could turn into one of the most important and informative tourist attractions in the country. That is exactly the purpose of the buildings to bring Prahubapada to the world. The leader of the community says that "Prahubapada should be as prominent as Jesus Christ." The leader is not unwilling to receive adoration either, for when I was visiting the palace, the leader came to the site, and all the devotees got down on their hands and knees before him. Since then, he has been tried and convicted of racketeering and mail fraud and sentenced to prison in 1996. Another leader was convicted of two murders and is serving a prison sentence.

Another 127 acre farm, New Raman Reti, is located in Alachua, near Gainesville, FL, and is home for about 150 Hare Krishna families. Their children attend their own grade school and then transfer to public high school. The community is well known and appreciated for their vegetarian free lunch program.

In Washington, DC, area there are two temples. One is near Annapolis, MD, and the other in Potomac, serving 2000 families. There are estimated 100,000 Hare Krishnas US and a million world-wide. In the US, there are 75 Swamis [leaders]. The only Black Swami was a former Baptist. He still considers himself to be a Christian, Buddhist and Hindu. Vaishavism is one of three major branches of Hinduism.

The name of the organization, Hare Krishna, is taken from a "mantra," or saying, believed to be made up of mind freeing transcendental sounds addressed to Krishna, who is one of Hinduism 's many gods. The mission of the movement is to reach the people of every town and village in America so their minds can remain fixed on Krishna all day. They are eminently successful for "Hare Krishna , Hare Rama" is now as familiar a sound on the streets of most major American cities as the noise of passing traffic; no one even turns to stare at the saffron robes and shaved heads of devotees anymore.

2.                   Transcendental Meditation

To many Americans, the act of meditating on a simple word or thought seems like such a harmless way of obtaining peace in a hectic world. They ask, What is wrong with putting the mind in neutral and allowing it to attain its natural state of bliss? Any school child can do it, and many are being taught how at the taxpayer's expense.

Three hundred thousand Americans are members of the Spiritual Regeneration Foundation of America or the Student International Meditation Society (SIMS) as followers of Transcendental Meditation [TM]. They see no reason why tax dollars should not be spent in teaching Transcendental Meditation in the public schools. However, instant Nirvana, as it is called, must be known for what it—is a sect of Hinduism. 

Its founder was a Hindu guru, or spiritual teacher, by the name of Maharishi Mahese Yogi. Born in India in 1911, he began teaching his doctrine in 1959 after studying under a Hindu swami for nine years. He moved to England where in 1967, after the Beatles accepted his teaching, he received instant fame. Several American show business people also became his disciples, and the United States welcomed TM. Time magazine reported in 1972 that TM may well be the fastest growing cult in the West.

The guru's method of attaining peace involves a daily fifteen minute meditation on his own personal Sanskrit mantra, which is given by the guru to fit the personality. By means of this exercise, it is alleged that suffering can be eliminated. TM becomes "a vague mixture of self therapy, Hindu teaching, and flower power."

Hinduism is an inclusive religion which seeks to embrace every possibility; therefore, the saying, “all the gods for all the causes in all circumstances.” Thus, Hinduism clashes with the exclusivity of Christianity’s Christ, for there is one name under heaven by which one can be saved.

3.                  New Age

The New Age Movement is a confusing and to some, fascinating loose coalition of teachers and teachings which is appealing to many who call themselves New Agers. There is no founder or main leader or central headquarters, but central to the teachings is Hinduism.

The core values are based on mysticism and monism, the worldview that ‘all is one’, leading a new harmonious era of world peace through a new level of human consciousness, and intentional realigning of humankind with nature.

In reality, New Age teaching is not new. It is in fact a return to occultism and is basically Hinduism. The late Walter Martin in his book, The Kingdom of the Cults, [Bethany House, 1997, pp 333-49] says, “ The only substantive difference between Hinduism and New Age Movement is that Hinduism is world denying, while New Age is world affirming” [p335].

Actress Shirley McLaine, a major voice in New Age, clearly proclaimed a doctrine of the divinity of man, which is self-realized godhood or god-realization. The process of this self-realization enlightenment will take more than one lifetime; therefore, Karma and reincarnation [Hindu teachings] are essential.  [see 9-4-E New Age as a cult]

F.                 JAINISM—20,000, 100 TEMPLES

Both Buddhism and Jainism are historically related to Hinduism. Some would suggest that both are in reality heresies. It is true that Jainism has a closer affinity with Hinayana Buddhism, because Jainism in its purist form is a religion of asceticism for monks who have renounced this world and its passions.

The founder, Mahvira, who lived in the 6th century BC, renounced his princely heritage for the life of a monk to discover how to be released from the cycle of birth, death and rebirth. His quest took 12 years and he concluded that there are no gods who can help, but a person must practice the most uncompromising form of self-discipline for salvation. He taught that negative deeds and thoughts which add weight [karma] to the soul as sheaths, must be worn off by good deeds. Then the soul can rise to the heavenlies. Thus salvation is self-attained.

Jainism as practiced in North America involves 12 vows which include: never knowingly take life, lie, steal, cheat or be unfaithful to the mate and observe special periods of self-denial. Most Jains are business persons and professionals.

There are four million Jains in the world, most of whom live in Asia, however 6 to 10,000 families have come to North America and have built some 100 temples.

G.                SIKHS—280,000, [2012], 246 Gurdwaras

The assassination of Indira Ghandi of India in 1984 by a Sikh made Americans aware that 150,000 Sikhs [of 20.2 million worldwide] have emigrated to the United States. Devoted Sikhs can be recognized by their well kept black beards and turbaned heads. Under the turban is packed their uncut hair held in place by a special comb. On the arm they wear steel bangles or bracelets and somewhere under their garments will be hidden a small dagger. Their god is a book, called Granth Sahib, considered living guru.

Sikhism is a syncretistic religion that drew its monotheism from Islam and the rest of its beliefs from Hinduism. Although they have no active missionary program, their well known soup kitchens provide free meals for any and all who may come to their Gurdwaras[temples] to be found in Washington, DC, New York City (8,000), Los Angeles (9,000), Espanola, Washsington state [50,000],New Mexico, Oregon as well as Toronto [80,000] and Vancouver [200,000] in Canada. In fact, the largest Punjabi community outside of India is in Vancouver.

The earliest Sikhs came from the Punjab, India, in the early 1900s. Yogi Bhajan founded the Sikh movement in the United States called Health, Happy, Holy Organization, or the 3HO Foundation. More recent new comers to the Sikh communities of the west coast are from the Fiji Islands where large numbers of East Indians have migrated. One of the larger Sikh communities in CA is in Yuba City. There are said to be five to 7,000 thousand East Indians working the crops in CA, many of whom are Sikhs. John McArthur’s church has an outreach ministry to the Sikhs. In San Francisco, Joseph Sammy works with East Indians.

Columbia University in New York City, is considered in the forefront of South Asian studies. They offer a Sikh Studies Program under the direction of a devout Sikh, Gurinder Singh Mann, who is Assistant Professor in the Department of Religion. Dr. Mann says that this program increases Sikh visibility and provides a rare opportunity to present Sikhism to American academia and the general public. He recognizes that the studies program is a Sikh investment which will bear fruit at three levels, including that of academic credibility. The University also has a Sikh Student Association which was recognized in 1988. The Sikhs of NYC have an annual Vaisakhi parade which gives them visibility in the community.

A Sikh radio program, Amri Bani Radio UK, Intl. is broadcasting 12/7 from Birmingham offices 2003. Apps are available, along with CDs or thumb drives. See: Atlantic Coast Sikh Association WEB. Durham, NC.

In western Canada, Vancouver is home to many Sikhs. InterAct Ministries and NAIM have work among them. San Tash Raj is a converted priest who is now an evangelist among East Indians in Vancouver.

The evangelical church must awaken and prepare literature and missionaries to reach these zealous but lost souls. International Missions has begun a work among Hindus with its Friendship International ministry in New York City. Christians across America should be aware that some of the professionals in their community may be Hindus or from a Hindu background. They can be befriended and won to Christ

The non-Christian religions are growing in America. The church is just beginning to recognize its responsibility to reach the foreign mission field here at home. The greatest challenge of all the non-Christian religions may be Islam. "The spreading, militant evangelism of Islam from the Near East, which has already converted large segments of the world, will pose a serious challenge to Christianity as well as religion in general in America."

H.                 TRADITIONAL ETHNIC---1.1 MILLION

I.                  OTHER RELIGIONS---1.5 MILLION

J.                NON-RELIGIOUS---26 MILLION

K.                SERVICES AVAILABLE FOR MINISTRIES AMONG NON–CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS

1.                  Bible Conferences

 1. Evangelical Baptist Missions Arabic Bible Conference

 2. Reformed Bible College Annual Conference on Christian Witness to Muslims, 1869 Robison

     Road,  S.E., Grand Rapids, MI 49506

 3. Urbana Scholarship for Iranian Christians from Muslim background, Allayhar Estaidi, O.R.U.

     Box 1776, Tulsa, OK 74717

2.                  Radio Ministry

 1. "Back to God Hour" in Arabic, Bassam Madany, 6555 W. College Drive, Palos Heights, IL

     60643 (Also has literature available)

3.                  Training

 1. American Messianic Fellowship, Muslim training sessions

 2. Arab World Ministries Summer Insttitute On Islam, Philadelphia, PA

 3. Center for South Asian Studies in Los Angeles, seeks train Christians to reach Hindus.

 3. International Missions Chinese, Hindu and Muslim training, Reading, PA

 4. Joel Slaughter Hawthorne Bible Church, Hawthtorne, NJ

 5. Zwemer Institute Muslim Studies, 6600 N. Clinton St., Ft Wayne, IN 46825, Jim Dretke, Dir.

 6. Columbia Biblical Seminary, Box, 3122 Columbia, SC 29230, Institute of Muslim Studies,

     Masters program in Islamics  muslimstudies@ciu.edu

 7. Sonrise Center for Buddhist Studies, Panorama City, Ca, Modular studies

8. Horizons International, Summer Institute for Muslim Studies

9. Church Without Walls in No. Am. [CWW] Founded by Dr. Anees Zaka, 1988.

10. Biblical Institute for Islamic Studies, Dr. Zaka

11. Summer Institute of Muslim studies, 4146 Austin Bluffs Pkwy, #357, Colo. Spgs, CO

12. Billy Graham Muslim Studies Center, Wheaton.

4.                  Materials

 1. American Bible Society   

 2. American Missionary Fellowship correspondence course

 3. Center for Ministry to Muslims, 2032 E. Kearney, Suite 205, Springfield, MO 65803 [publish

     INTERCEDE, a monthly prayer digest]

 4.  Fellowship of Faith for Missions prayer list, range of materials

 5.  Fellowship of Isa seminars, materials

 7.  Turkish World Outreach [formerly Friends of Turkey], 508 Fruitvale Ct., Grand Junction, CO 81504 [Jesus video in multiple languages]

 8.  Gospel Missionary Union correspondence courses in Arabic, French, and Spanish

 9.  Institute in Public Evangelism Arabic scriptures, tapes, and film: Man from Tarsus in Arabic or

      English, P. O. Box 495, Kansas City, MO 64141.      

10. International Missions correspondence courses

11. Life of Jesus the Messiah by Dennis Clark for Muslims in English (David C. Cook Publishing

      Company)

12. New Testament in Arabic on cassettes, Victor Khalil, Assembly of God Division of Home

      Missions, 1445 Boonville Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802

13. Multi-Language Media, P O Box 301, Ephrata, PA 17522 [Bibles in different languages]

14. WEC Ministries literature in Persian and English

15. ISIC Bulletin [Institute for the Study of Islam and Christianity] St Andrews Center, St Andrews

      Rd, Plaistow, London, UK E13 8QD. PH 0171-474-0743 Fax +44-171-511-4874

16. Bangla Bible Correspondence School, Niduhu Das, Dir, P O Box 2844, Grand Rapids, MI

      49501-2844, PH 616-454-3041

17. Pluralism Project, Dr. Dianna Eck, Director Department of Religion, Harvard University.

      Survey of various religious shrines in the US. CD disk—On Common Ground, Col U. Press

18. Horizons International, ReachOutBook and Tape Catalog, P O Box 18478, Boulder, CO

      80308-1478 PH 303-442-3333.

19. Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences In America [IIASA], 8500 Hilltop Rd, Fairfax, VA

      22031, PH 703-207-3930. Tuition free Arabic courses for $20.00 registration.

      School of Islamic and Social Sciences [SISS], Herndon, VA, outside Washington, DC., PH

      703-471-5546. Masters programs in Islamic studies to qualified students of all faiths, 36 hrs. to

      graduate. $600.00 per credit hour.

20. World Tribune, weekly newspaper of Soka Gakkai International,525 Wilshire Blvd, Santa

      Monica, CA 90401-1467

22. North American Council On South Asian Christians

23. Horizons Int., Box 18478, Boulder, CO 80308, PH 303.449.6323, E horizons777@yahoo.com   

www.horizonsinternational.org

24. Servants Fellowship, Int., [Institute for study of Islam/Christianity—ISIC], Washington, D C.

25 COMMA Council on Muslim Ministries America, E  comma-news@xc.org

26. Sam Elisha, Columbia, SC, www.answering-islam.org

HINDUISM--

Dr. Mahendra Singhal, Hinduism International Ministries, Box 602, Zion, IL, 60099,

      Ph 708-872-7022

Rabi Maharaj, East/West Gospel Ministries, 1605 Elizabeth, Pasadena, CA, 91104,

     Ph 818-398-2345

Effective Hindu Evangelism: Contrasting the concept of salvation between Hinduism and

     Christianity. Columbus, GA, Brentwood Christian Press, 1994

Roger Hedlund, ed ofr Dharma Beepika, journal, twice year, Madras, India. Teaches as Carey Serampore college.

BUDDHISM

I.                    MISSION BOARDS SERVING NON–CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS

AFRICA INLAND MISSION - N AMER DIV

CULT EXODUS FOR CHRIST

EVANGELICAL BAPTIST MISSIONS

EVANGELICAL FREE CHURCH OF AMERICA, Board of Overs

EVANGELICAL FRIENDS MISSION

GOSPEL OUTREACH MINISTRIES INTERNATIONAL, INC.

INTERNATIONAL FRIENDSHIP MINISTRIES

INTERNATIONAL OUTREACH MINISTRIES

INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS  INC

INTERNATIONAL TEAMS [US Urban Ministries ]

IRANIAN CHRISTIANS INTERNATIONAL

KAMIL INTERNATIONAL MINISTRIES ORGANIZATION [KAMO]

MISSIONARY ACTION / FLAME

SIM Int'nl

SPIRITUAL OVERSEERS SERVICE

 

 

Smyrna Ministries, Int.