A.                INTRODUCTION  [Minorities make up 38% US population and account for 42% of 4 million births.

The 21st C. has witnessed an amazing shift in immigrant nationality. Whereas the porosity of our southern border has commanded greatest concern over undocumenteds from the Latin World, especially Mexico, of late, the real story lies in the story of those who have come and made the American Dream a reality. Consider those who have come in 2013 from Asia, especially India [129,000] and China [147,000]. They came legally and have become well-educated and entrepreneural. The Asians are more likely to become citizens as have 18 million. Also 40% from India have earned graduate degrees compared to 12% of native-born Americans. These recent arrivals are to be found in the burgening electronics and medical research sectors. They have also brought their religious convictions as a plethora of Temples indicates. Current numbers of different ethnics can be found at:

Please note, statistics change rapidly. Those quoted here are given as a sample of what to expect. Pew Fundation does amazing research for uptodate info. Barna Research is invaluable. The Internet is a great source of infornation. Don't forget WEC Intl's Operation World, billed as prayer guide to every Nation. It is difinitive for facts on each Nation. The Southern Baptist North American Mission Board has site: in which there us a search engine to discover people groups, national &International. There are 7000 internationally.

Whereas Hispanics 57 M, Blacks 46 M and Native Americans 6 M, because of size and activist groups, are the more obvious ethnics, other groups also stand in need of specialized evangelism, because "the typical American church does not fit. Its style of operation, government, and communication are unlike what many ethnics need."

Richard Colenso, general director of specialized ministries of the Christian and Missionary Alliance, suggests that there are three kinds of homogeneous groups. They are the immigrant or new resident, the transitional or people who are passing from the immigrant culture to something else, and the established or those who have settled into some part of the American cultural mosaic.

Furthermore, he suggests that the established have adopted one of three possible life-styles. Some have essentially retained the Old World ways and settled in an ethnic ghetto such as Chinatown or Little Manilas. In such a setting they may "have no greater opportunity to receive Christ here than they did back home. The popular styles of evangelism pass them by."

Second, a unique cultural life-style may have been created such as that of the Indian, Black, or Hispanic. In chapters 3, 4, and 5 it has already been noted that these people must be encouraged to develop churches that are culturally relevant to them

Last, there are those who have adopted the majority culture and seem to be basically blended into the "American" society. Even then, according to Colenso, "a homogeneous group will probably form based upon national origin or culture." These people usually become a hidden people group--hidden from the gospel for they do not fit the ethnic church. Such a group would be the American Born Chinese [ABCs], who make up 40% of American Chinese [1995] and increase annually by 30,000. By the year 2000 they numbered one million.

The Urban Institute in Washington, DC, estimates that 10 million immigrants entered the US legally or illegally in the 1980’s, more than in any earlier decade in history. Eighty percent were either Latin or Asian. Studies also indicate that these immigrants create more jobs than they take. Further, poor English skills and low education may insulate them from competing with native workers in the job market. 19.5 million people US over age 5 do not speak English well ’00. Illegal immigrant aliens in 2016 are thought to be some 11 million.

According to the 2015 estimates, there were 40 million foreign born ethnics or 13% of US population, and projected to rise to 48 million by 2025, equaling 14%. In addition there are 46 million blacks, 6 million Native Americans, and 57 million Hispanics within the American context. Others will continue to arrive for some time into the future because the United States government has allowed a million immigrants to enter legally each year since 1989. In fact, in 1991, 1.8 million entered. As the world seethes with political convulsions, millions of people become refugees. In 1991 there were 17 million refugees. The number grew to 50 million in 2013. Africa has 11.8 million refugees, Asia has 7.9 million and Europe has 6.8 million. It is important to define the term refugees, for it currently includes asylum seekers and internally displaced. In 2005 UNHCR reports refugee agencies track some 17 million.

U S News & World Report 2/12/95 reported a Central Intelligence Agency [CIA] study which indicated the factors which predict the collapse of nations. The report suggests that there are presently 16 nations ‘at high risk’ over the next two years. It is predictable that North America will receive an increasing number of immigrants from these countries.

 Americans open their hearts and pocketbooks, and America opens her doors to relocate about 53,000 per year in 2005. Americans relocated 139,000 refugees in 1991. In addition, another one to two million people enter illegally. INS spokes person, Cassie Boothe, indicates that estimates run from 11 million illegal immigrants are here, 90% from Mexico. In 2001 177,000 were deported, 80% Mexican. It is suggested that 400,000 new aliens settle here each year. It is further recognized that the largest illegal-alien population, living in Brooklyn’s Little Pakistan, some 26,000 in 2000 was from Pakistan. Estimates range as high as 3 million illegals enter every year. Such a porous border does not bring comfort with reference  to terrorists, does it?

One major problem the US faces is the problem of 244,000 unaccompanied minor children who arrive seeking asylum [2015]. They are sent to adult prisons, foster care, group homes or sent to live with relatives. Most of these juveniles in custody are from Central America, 30% from Honduras, 28%k from El Salvador and 22% from Guatemala.

The country of origin for immigrants has radically shifted since 1965. Where once Europe sent her masses to be welcomed by the Statue of Liberty on Ellis Island, now only 15% are European. In 1992, 45% were from Latin America, 37% from Asia and 3% from African countries. The primary port of entry is California followed by Texas and Florida. The immigrants scatter across the fifty states, but California (28 percent), Texas (13 percent), New York (12 percent) and FL. receive the lion's share (61 percent). The largest number of immigrants concentrate in large gateway cities: LA, NYC, San Francisco, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Washington, DC, Baltimore and Miami. For instance, NYC with a population of 8.5 million, includes 2 million Blacks, 1.7 Hispanics, 1 Puerto Ricans, 1 million Asians, .7 Koreans, .4 Filipinos and .18 million Native Americans.


The great numbers of peoples coming from almost every country under the sun is called the ‘Browning of America’. US News & World Report reported in December of 1989 that ‘someday soon white Americans will become a minority.’ Oscar Romo in American Mosaic, Church Planting In Ethnic America, predicts that ‘in the 21st century ethnic and racial groups will outnumber whites for the first time’ [1993 p32]. Engle notes that ‘people of diverse cultural backgrounds continue to transform the face of urban America.’ Between 1965 and 1995, 20 million immigrants entered the US [US News and World Report 11/18/96, p 82]. Further, ethnic Americans are growing 13X faster than whites.

Finally, at all times there are 6,000,000 temporary residents living here who are neither immigrants nor tourists. It is clear that the mission field has come to the church in America. Stephen Thernstrom, a social historian and editor of the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, insists that America's ethnics are being rapidly assimilated; but Don Bjork, formerly World Team's North American Ministries director, suggests that the millions of newcomers are changing America and compelling a new thrust for North American missions. That new thrust must include the cooperation of foreign missionaries and their boards because,

“the sheer number and kind of newcomers is outpacing timely and effective response from existing churches and agencies. Most of the present waves of newcomers are from cultural groups previously unserved by home missions and churches of North America. Foreign missions have the intercultural expertise to reach them."

In this chapter a sampling of ethnic groups is examined. They are but suggestive of the plurality of 400 people groups that are hidden away to be evangelized in communities across America. They are sometimes called the great "forgotten foreign fields." Ethnic minorities are essentially an urban phenomenon. Presently, in US cities, minorities comprise a majority in 40 of the 200 cities with more than 100,000 population. By the end of the century, this figure could rise to 50 cities. In 12 of the 200 cities the majority is Black. In another 8 the majority is Hispanic. In Honolulu the majority [71%] is Asian. However, heavy concentrations of Asians are to be found in 22 of the 200 cities. They normally only comprise between 10 and 20% of the population and overwhelmingly are located in California. This statistic is not to imply that Asians are not to be found in every city, for it is estimated that at least 125 ethnic communities maintain a cultural cohesion. Three-fourths of foreign born reside in 8 states: CA, NY, FL, TX, NJ, IL, MA and AZ.

Several myths about ethnics need to be addressed according to Linda Chavez and John Miller in their  Reader’s Digest article, ‘The Immigration’, published May 1996. 1. Today’s immigrants are less educated. The fact is, the percentage of immigrants with a college education and advanced degrees is increasing. In 1992 there were 22,000 foreign born engineers and scientists. In fact, 28% of engineering doctorates in 2011 went to foreign-born. Twenty-seven percent of all medical doctors are immigrant and twenty-three percent of all PhDs in this country are immigrant. In the Silicon Valley, in the year 2000, one third of the scientists and engineers are foreign born. Fully a quarter of the high-tech companies started there in the ‘90’s are run by Chinese or Indian entrepreneurs. 2. Immigrants steal jobs from native-born. Fact is, most take jobs native-born will not take. Twenty percent of those who work the slaughter houses are Hispanic and immigrants make up half the 900,000 garment workers. About eleven percent of immigrants are self-employed.  3. Immigrants are welfare moochers. The fact is, without the refugee figures, there are fewer immigrants than native-born on welfare. Within 10 years, foreign-born incomes are on a par with native-born. Twenty-six percent of all patents are created by foreign-born. Note also that they pay into Social Security and help pay senior citizen SS checks. Finally, immigrants do not want to assimilate. Fact is, most do learn English for with English they can earn three times as much. At times, bilingual education has slowed their learning English as a second language.

American ingenuity continues to work in favor of refugees in some cites in transition, such as Utica, NY. This city was dying, when they opened their doors to refugees who now come from 30 nations, numbering some 10,000 or 1/6th of the population of 65,000. They include, Myanmar or Burmese Karens, Cambodians, Vietnamese, Somalians, Russians, Bosnians, Iraqis, and Belarusians. These cities are called, ethnicities. Another is Ft. Wayne, IN, where several hundred  ethnics from 30 nations reside. M/M Ron Neuenschwander have established the 'International House' with several ministries, including 'in home tutoring' to befriend, teach English and minister to these internationals, among whom are: Bosnians, Chadians, Bantu from Somalia, Darfurians from Sudan and Congolese.

The Refugee crisis of the world in 2015 is driving 24 persons from their home every minute according to UN Refugee Agency. Most of the 14 Million in 2014 were from MENA = Middle East & North Africa. NOTE: WIKIPEDIA---Refugee Crisis FOR LISTING

B.                 ESTABLISHED ETHNICS

Within America's cultural mosaic are to be found those who continue to use their native language even though they have been living here long enough to learn English. According to Audio Scriptures International News, they speak 329 languages. Others suggest over 650 languages/dialects are spoken here, representing 500 ethnic groups which are less than 1% evangelical. Most of these citizens are more or less bilingual, but they feel more comfortable with

the mother tongue. In fact, one in seven families speaks other

than English in the home. They have come from most of the

 countries of the world. Their spiritual needs will be fulfilled best

 by a church that speaks their language.

A study of languages  spoken here in 2000, suggests the following. In population of 324 million, in millions: 215 speak English only, 47 non English speakers, 28 speak Spanish,  1.6 French, 1.6 German, 2 Chinese, 1 Italian and Tagalog, .9Korean. Also 34,000 speak Cajun, 82,000 Miao, 50,000 Punjabi and 42,000 Turkish. [US Bureau of Census, Language use table, CPITL.133]. The US census for 2000 reveals that 21.3 million Americans speak limited English. That is a 52% increase in a decade. Multilingualism is on the rise

1.   1.   CHINESE AMERICANS  [2 Million] [HONG KONG 4,500, TAIWAN 187,000] [18 M Asian Americans]

      Mainland China with a billion plus citizens, is one of the few countries left which still holds its citizens in the godless system of Chinese Communism, yet article 36 of China’s Constitution says, ‘the citizens of PRC enjoy freedom of religious beliefs.’  Yet persecution of Christians is widespread in China. It is estimated that there are some 125 million Christians in China, with more than half that number meeting in house churches rather than in the 16,000 registered churches. There are 6 house church movements, and some 52,000 meeting points. There may be 15 to 20 million Protestants, 75% of which became Christian in the last ten years. Only 40 % of the young people who join the church stay involved. The East Theological Seminary reports that there are only 1600 ordained clergy serving the Protestants. The government has approved 70,000 places of worship, including 10,000 Buddhist, servicing 100 million Buddhists, 30,000 Mosques, servicing 20 million Muslim, 1,000 Taoist, Protestant, Catholic for the five approved faiths. The Religious Affairs Bureau [RAB] reports that there are 100 million ascribing to the authorized religions. [Not too good for a population of over a billion].

Inner Mongolia has 24 million who are virtually untouched by the Gospel. There may be 172,000 believers worshipping in 1,000 registered churches in 2003.

Atheism has taken its toll among the Chinese, even in North America. Americans of Chinese descent numbering 2 million (2003) are a mission field because 66 percent of Chinese Americans are unchurched and could not be reached by the existing churches, either Chinese or English-speaking. The Chinese church is not prepared to adequately minister to the overseas-born Chinese [OBC], estimated to be 530,000, the 10th largest foreign born group, who speak dialects that are not being used in the church. Nor is she prepared to serve the 40% ABCs who speak English and have moved away from the traditional Chinatowns downtown to suburban Chinatowns. Pulse [July 8, 1994] reported that there are 43.2 million Chinese living in the Chinese Diaspora, 13.2 million in the US. The report noted that the Christian Science Monitor was their source. This figure seems excessive, but may point out that many Chinese came to the US illegally and therefore may not be numbered in the census.

English-speaking white churches obviously are not able to evangelize the Chinese speaker. But neither are they prepared to either evangelize the English-speaking Chinese or to freely accept him into the fellowship. A majority of Chinese Americans are therefore hidden peoples; that is, they are a mission field. It is reported that only 5% of second generation Chinese attend church.

The Chinese first came in great numbers to the "gold mountain," the Chinese name for America at that time, as prospectors following the discovery of gold in 1848. A great number were brought in as coolies or cheap labor to build the Central Pacific Railroad (1864-1869) and to work the huge farms in the West.

Widespread persecution of Chinese Americans developed as they became the scapegoat during times of economic depression and unemployment. It culminated in lynchings and the Oriental Exclusion Act (1882). This was the first time the country excluded an entire race by law. The law was repealed in 1943, but even then a strict quota of 100 immigrants per year was enforced. After 1965 the quota was relaxed and 50,000 to arrive annually.

Chinese Americans congregated in the cities of the West Coast (53 percent) and then in the Northeast (29 percent). The state of California is home for 44 percent of America's Chinese, and New York State boasts 18 percent. Other groups are to be found in Hawaii (69,000), Texas (63,000) and Illinois (50,000). Typically, the Chinese gathered in ethnic communities called Chinatowns. In this setting the traditional extended family cared for one another and took new arrivals into their flats. Jobs were available from Chinese businessmen in the community. Although wages were minimal, long hours, frugal living, and pooling the family income afforded younger members opportunities to become educated and move up the social scale. Today the Chinese American has attained a higher educational and economic status than the average white American. For example, one church in Houston, Texas, has 150 Chinese PhDs.

The two largest Chinatowns are located in Manhattan, New York City (100,000) and San Francisco (400,000). A recently observed phenomenon (1979) indicates that more Chinese now live outside the Chinatowns than live within. However, the Chinatown in NYC continues to maintain a density that is twelve times that of the rest of the city because of the influx of immigrants annually.

In San Francisco the Chinese population is also divided evenly between Chinatown and the suburbs. It is obvious that Chinatowns have become a place of transition for the suburb-bound newcomer. Immigrants are absorbed into the Chinatown economy without going on welfare. From Chinatown educated individuals with marketable skills emerge to take their place in the larger society.

Chinese Americans are therefore polarized into widely differing socio-economic communities. Within Chinatown is the poor, unskilled Chinese-speaking and struggling persons. Some of the so-called Hong Kong Chinese Americans were ardent propagandists for Maoism. In the suburbs Chinese Americans are English-speaking, affluent, and more Americanized. Both communities stand in need of evangelization. Chinatowns are to be found in the urban and suburban portions of all fifty states.

The first Chinese church was planted in San Francisco in 1853. By the end of the century, eleven denominations had begun Chinese ministries using Anglo missionaries. The ministry was primarily one of providing English classes and other social assistance programs.

The Chinese church grew slowly until Chinese pastors were trained or immigrated and anti-Chinese sentiments diminished. After 1960 Chinese churches multiplied rapidly so that by 2003 there are 1000 Chinese churches servicing a growing community of  Chinese believers. By the year 2000, San Francisco Chinese church attendance had reached 2,000. The Chinese church is distributed regionally in direct proportion to the Chinese population. There is a serious lack of churches for the rapidly growing, more affluent population of American-born Chinese who do not live in downtown Chinatowns. Joseph Wong, an American-born Chinese pastor from San Francisco, observes that the American-born Chinese are the largest hidden group of American Chinese. Although they constitute more than half of all Chinese Americans, nine out of ten are not Christian because the Chinese church never reached them or they are dropouts claiming neither the gospel nor Christ. They are not committed to the Chinese church as the center of the Chinese community. ABCs are caught up in Western cultural diversity, setting their own ground rules and changing at will.

[Note, in 1996, it is estimated that 25,000 daily turn to Christ in China].

The average Chinese church is located in Chinatown, and meets in less than adequate facilities. Location requires that its 100 members commute to hear the older, foreign-born Chinese pastor. The church is growing at the rate of 36 percent every three years with most of that growth attributable to the addition of Christian Chinese immigrants. At the same time the church is losing its young people, for "the Chinese-speaking elders have little success in keeping their own second generation in the church. "Perhaps 25 percent of the committed Christian Chinese actively witness; therefore, the Chinese church is not able to keep up with the growth of the North American Chinese population, which is doubling each decade because of large numbers of immigrants and a birth rate that is twice the national average. FACE reported that the number of births in 2001 was 30 thousand per year.

Chinese evangelical leaders are concerned about evangelizing Chinese Americans; therefore, in 1972 they formed the North American Congress of Chinese Evangelicals (NACOCE), which meets in Chinese fashion on even years. This organization represents many of the 1000 North American Chinese churches, including 200 Canadian Chinese churches. The number of Chinese churches has doubled each decade from 1970. About 40% of Chinese churches are affiliated with denominations while 60% are independent. The North American Chinese Christian community may be 8% of the Chinese population. There are approximately 400 Chinese studying for Christian ministry.

The leaders of the Chinese church recognize that the American-born Chinese represent one of the greatest challenges before the Chinese church; thus, they founded the Fellowship of American Chinese Evangelicals (FACE). The Fellowship established a quarterly, About Face (1979), through which it purposed to alert the Chinese church concerning the spiritual needs of American-born Chinese.

To promote evangelism among all Chinese in North America and to develop a missionary thrust among Chinese churches, the Evangelical China Office (ECO) was opened in 1980. Three groups engaged in Chinese evangelism--the North American Congress of Chinese Evangelicals, the Mission Exchange, and the Cross Global Link, sponsor the ECO. By means of this organization, most North American-based evangelical foreign missions and Chinese congregations are united organizationally in the task of Chinese ministries.

Denominational missions have planted half of all Chinese churches. Two missions have planted the majority of the denominational churches--the Southern Baptists (15 percent) and the Christian and Missionary Alliance (12 percent). The Baptists began in the nineteenth century and the Alliance in 1969.

Thirty-nine percent of Chinese American churches are independent. Independent pastors, retired missionaries, or groups of Christians planted them. In 1982, 400 Chinese students were in Bible College or seminary. Eleven faith missions maintain work among Chinese Americans. Church planting is the primary ministry of seven organizations. Two have campus ministries, and three provide Scriptures and messages recorded in numerous languages and dialects.

Two schools offer specialized training for Chinese ministries. A new Chinese Bible is now available from the American Bible Society. It was translated solely by Chinese linguists and is called, Today's Chinese Version (TCV). There are several Chinese-language seminaries in America training OBC workers, yet there is a serious shortage of pastors.

In recent years, Chinese are the largest group entering the US. Many are from Hong Kong [330,000 in 2016], seeking to escape the 1997 date when the country reverted back to being a part of mainland China. Many Chinese are Buddhist and are building Buddhist temples across the country. The largest is the Hsi Lai Chinese Buddhist Temple, located in Lost Angeles. Since 1950, some 250,000 ethnic Chinese students have come to America to study primarily in graduate schools. Only 15% return to China.

A study prepared by the Emmanuel Gospel Center in Boston [1990] indicates that there are some 24,000 Asians living in Boston, making up some 4% of the population. It further indicates that there are some seven Chinese churches and a Bible study group for college students at Cambridge.

2.                   JAPANESE AMERICANS  [1.3 M]

Japan has a population of 127 million [2014], most of whom know little about Christianity. There is only one Christian church for 16 thousand people and those churches average about 35 members.

Japanese farmers came to the West Coast as early as the 1800s. In 1907 the Gentleman's Agreement slowed their immigration, but as of 1952 all Asiatics who come to the United States within the immigration quota system are able to become citizens.

One point three million Americans of Japanese descent live in the United States [2015]. About half of Japanese Americans belong to the Buddhist church. Another group is Shintoist; therefore, they both are discussed in chapter 8.

The world’s first video sign language Bible is being produced as a 50 volume, 104 hour set, by the Japan Deaf Evangel Mission and the Japan Bible Society. It will take 15 years to complete. It will transliterate the O.T and N.T.s into Japanese sign language. 3,000 deaf Japanese are Christians.

3.                  PORTUGUESE AMERICANS [1,500,000]

During the decade ending in 1975, 100,000 Portuguese immigrated to the United States from Portugal, the Azores in the mid-Atlantic, and the Cape Verde Islands off the coast of West Africa. By 1995 over a million had come.  More than half of Portuguese-speaking Americans settled in New England. Fall River, Massachusetts, which is 50 percent Portuguese, is the heart of New England's Portuguese American community of 150,000. In Massachusetts, the elementary schools of the Portuguese American community are bilingual, such as in New Bedford, where 60,000 Portuguese reside. Baptist Mid-Missions began a church planting ministry in 1983.

Rhode Island also hosts 100,000 Portuguese-speaking citizens. Around Narragansett Bay is a large community of Portuguese Americans. Most Portuguese are engaged in farming and fishing. Others have taken jobs in industry, especially in textile manufacturing. New York and New Jersey is host to another 100,000 between them. Most of the other half of Portuguese Americans lives in California.

A Roman Catholic veneer hides the true longing of the Portuguese for the truth. Only a token effort has been made to reach these people for Christ. American Mission for Opening Churches has one couple in church planting in Massachusetts among Portuguese fishermen.

The Bible is available in Portuguese as are other materials. Gospel Light Publications and Baptist Mid-Missions both maintain publishing houses in Brazil, where all but 26,000,000 of the world's 138,000,000 Portuguese-speakers live. Scripture Gift Mission of Canada, an affiliate of the London parent, provides materials in Portuguese.

            Brazil. 65,000


The French world of 450,000,000 reaches into North America.  France itself [60 million]  is a very secular, pluralistic people. There are 50,000 full-time occult practitioners, outnumbering the 35,000 known Christian workers. Seventy-five percent of Frenchmen have no religious affiliation. Twelve percent are Catholic, evangelicals number 488,000 [1%], of which, the largest group is Roma or Gypsies, eleven percent are Muslim and three percent are Buddhists. There are 600,000 of the Jewish faith. The suicide rate is among the highest in Europe. Europeans use more prescription anti-depressants and sedatives than any part of the world, while French doctors prescribe four times the other countries. Many beautiful cathedrals are now nearly empty or used for other purposes. The average evangelical church attendance is 25-40. A large church would have 100. More than 20% of the population of France lives in Paris.

Two and one half million people in North America speak French. Charles Nute, an American Missionary Fellowship missionary, suggests that perhaps 1% is being reached with the Gospel. French Canadians living primarily in Quebec are 67 percent of the total, but 1.7 million French-speaking Americans live in the United States. Americans who speak French live in three areas: one million live in New England [ME, NH & VT], 700,000 in Cajun country centered in Louisiana and 300,000 Haitians who speak Creole.

The United States has a long history of contact with France. French explorers sailed up the Saint Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers in the 1600s establishing a lucrative fur-trading industry with the Indians. Even though the French built fortresses, the Spanish in the South and the British in the North repulsed them. The French and Indian wars of the eighteenth century ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763. By means of that treaty Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi were occupied by England. The lands west of the Mississippi were controlled by Spain. In 1800 these latter lands secretly reverted to France who sold them to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. French continues to be spoken in both of those areas.

Three northern New England states (Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont) border on Canada's French Quebec province. A large percentage of the 2,600,000 residents are bilingual. Many of them speak French in their homes.

Thousands of Canadian men work in the United States several months a year in the paper industry or as woodsmen. They live on both sides of the border and regularly cross the border weekends to be with their families.

Quebecans have migrated to the United States to live and work in industries in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York. Other Canadians come down from the St. John River Valley in New Brunswick, the province north of Maine.

Missionaries of the American Missionary Fellowship working in New England have been surveying the spiritual needs of Francophone, or French-speaking, Americans for several years. They conclude that the churches existing in French areas of New England are rarely willing to be involved (in French evangelism). Most New England cities have one or more evangelical churches. They, for the most part, do not know how to approach the French problem or else are already over-programmed and will not consider a French work.

The [American Missionary Fellowship] now InFaith has determined that they should plant French-speaking churches in towns near the Canadian border in the New England states that are contiguous with Canada. In those towns the French-speaking population may include 80 percent of the residents, as evidenced by the number of bi-lingual road signs. By concentrating the work near the border they are better able to work the French field, which is international. Quebec is said to be "one of the least evangelized areas of North America."

Access to French Quebec is essential not only to follow up those who travel back and forth across the border, but also to ensure a more adequate pool of potential workers. Bethel Bible School [1948] now Word of Life Bethel [1992] in Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada,  which is just north of Vermont, is a French Bible school. Students attend from 100 French evangelical churches in Quebec and three in New Brunswick to train for the ministry. French literature is also available from Canada. Missionaries desiring to learn French attend.

[Shantyman's Christian Association of North America] now SCS International is a Canadian based missionary organization, which works in the lumber camps among French lumberjacks. In the early days these woodsmen lived in remote places in shanties and were called shantymen; therefore, the missionaries who were burdened to reach them for Christ adopted the name. The ministry is demanding, for the work is in remote places and the men are transient. The mission publishes a monthly newspaper, The Shantyman.

Back to the Bible produces a French-language program in French entitled La Voix de l'Evangile, which is also aired in Quebec.

Information about French-language work in New England and other ministries is available from the Evangelistic Association of New England.

CAJUNS. Lafayette is the center of French Louisiana, where 1,500,000 Cajuns live virtually beyond the gospel outreach of the state's evangelical churches. The Acadian is the largest minority (36 percent), followed closely by the black (29 percent).

Cajuns came to Louisiana, a former French colony, after they were expelled from Acadia in 1755. Acadia is a region of eastern Canada centered in Nova Scotia, where the French Catholic Cajuns had migrated from France in 1604. The name Acadia was given the region by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his poem "Evangeline." When the British banned the Catholic Church the Cajuns fled Acadia.

These thrifty, hardworking, fun-loving, and devoutly religious people avoided learning English until the early 1900s. Today they are bilingual but prefer the French language. A French-English patois is used almost exclusively, especially in the bayous.

Although the Cajun is originally from Acadia, because of intermarriage the lineage is difficult to trace. Therefore, anyone who has lived in Cajun country long enough is called and calls himself a Cajun. It is now fashionable to speak French and revive the Cajun culture.

Most Cajuns have a Catholic veneer, but for many it is proper to "spit on the bait," carry a bag of salt on the belt, or wear an amulet under the clothes for good luck. Warren Doud, a former missionary to Cajuns under the Go Ye Mission, notes:

There is little gospel witness to the Catholic Cajuns. The few evangelical churches in the area from Texas to New Orleans and south of Alexandria have little to do with the Catholics and mainly minister to the Protestants who have moved in from the outside.

   It is safe to say that the Cajuns are among the least well evangelized in the US, having fewer Christians and fewer Christian workers per capita than many places in Africa and India. It is a very needy field and worthy of consideration as a field of service.

Two Bible churches, whose members are Cajun, can be mentioned as Cajun churches. A Cajun, K. J. Fontenot, pastored the Opelousas Bible Church in Opelousas for twenty-five years. The Henderson Bible Church is also Cajun. There is little known mission work among the Cajun people.

HAITIANS Haiti, lying 800 miles southeast of Florida, is the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere. Nearly a million Haitians have migrated to the United States looking for jobs and a better opportunity to live the good life. After 1959, when Dr. Francois Duvalier (known as Papa Doc) began his reform in Haiti, thousands of educated mulattos fled to the United States. These professionals started in Brooklyn, New York, a Haitian community that has grown to 500,000 and spread into the adjoining states. It is the largest Haitian community in America. Other Haitian communities can be found in southern Florida (60,000), Boston (40,000), and Chicago (20,000). Sixty percent arrived between 1980 - 1990.

The United States allows 20,000 Haitians to immigrate annually. Perhaps as many more arrive illegally via the Bahamas each year. The more recent arrivals are seldom bilingual and speak only Creole, which is a patois of French, African, Spanish, and English. They are willing to work hard and are accused by the blacks of taking their jobs. They are 97 percent illiterate. Sixty percenthave graduated from high school and 12% from college. Nine percent are professionals, 34% work in service occupations and 21% are laborers.

Within the Haitian communities in Miami, New Orleans, and New York City, Voodoo, a mixture of African religion and Roman Catholicism, is practiced as it is on the island. It includes the playing of drums, the sacrificing of chickens, and placing hexes on people. It was reported in a New York newspaper that a father killed his son because the spirits told him to do it.

Peter Golinski, a missionary with UFM International [1931] now CrossWorld for twenty-five years in Haiti, an evangelist in the American Haitian community. He estimates that there are 130 Haitian churches working in Haitian communities totaling 600,000 people. The largest Haitian church is the First Haitian Baptist Church of Brooklyn, New York. It has a congregation of 2,000 and has planted numerous satellite groups. The average Haitian church may have fifty members, meets in a storefront building, and is pastored by a Haitian who also maintains a secular job. If the pastor has any Bible training, it was received in Haiti.

There are too few Haitian churches to reach the community. Sixty churches in Brooklyn each are responsible for nearly 7,000 Haitians. In south Florida the ratio is worse with sixty churches trying to minister to 60,000 Haitians. In Boston there are now 24 Haitian churches, with the first being established in 1969. Some 3,000 Haitians, out of 40,000, attend 42 Haitian churches [1990] in MA, RI and NH. The American Haitian churches do have a burden to evangelize their own people, but only 20% of the congregations own their own church. Many satellite groups have been started by Haitian Christians. The Bible is now available in Creole. One problem the Creole speaking churches face is how to minister to the children who are being taught English.

Some mission societies with primary ministries overseas are now working with ethnics here at home. Worldteam, for example, has spearheaded a "partnership plan" in Miami among Haitians. The mission is working together with the Association of Churches in Haiti and a small Haitian congregation in Miami to try to reach the estimated 30,000 Haitians in the Miami area.

In September 1995, an estimated 3,000 attended the first international convention of Haitian Evangelicals in Brooklyn. Plans are being made to broadcast Radio Lumieres signal to the Haitians living in New York City. Radio Lumieres is a Christian station run by the Mission Evangelique Baptiste du Sud d’Haiti in Cap Haitian [Pulse 11/3/95].

A greater concern needs to be manifest for the Haitian Americans by our evangelical churches and faith mission boards maintaining work in Haiti. The Southern Baptists have the largest number of Haitian churches but almost no missionary staff assigned to the work. Worldteam maintains a token work in Florida with two Haitian churches working in cooperation with the national church in Haiti.

         C.                NEWER ETHNICS

The number of newer ethnics US, has been ascerbated by the refugee crisis of the 21st C. in MENA [1 million] and especially in the Middle East. It started with the Arab Spring [2011]which morphed into the creation of the self-styled Islamic Caliphate by Al Baghdadi. He sought to capitalize on the fractious international terrorist organizations, such as Al Qaeda and the Taliban of Afghanistan when the U.S. pulled out of Iraq, to form the super state [Caliphate] called Islamic State of Iraq Syria [ISIS] Islamic State of Syria & Levant [ISSL] or just Isamic State [IS] or Daesh [Arabic acronym]. It is in reality a Salafi Jihadist militant group of fundamentalist Wahhabi Sunni Islam. He terrorized Iraq and Syria, establishing the headquarters in Raqqa, Syria and abolishedUnreached  the border between Iraq and Syria. He was unsuccessful in seeking to unite the Sunnis of Iraq, a minority in Shia Iraq and a majority of Syrian Sunnis under a Shia ruler, Assad, proped up by Russia's Putin. As the months and years dragged on 250,000 Syrians died and thousands more fled as refugees. The Christian population was nearly anhilated. President Obama determined to bring 10,000 Syrian refugees into the US in 2016 and settle them among the already 150,000 resident Syrians. This caused a lot of consternation among the state Governors for they had no communication or say about how many they would be called upon to settle. There may be 300,000 Iraquis refugees here. Many in Chicago. Of the 85,000 refugees admitted in 2016, 39,000 were Muslim.


From 1975 to the present some 3 million refugees have entered. In 1979 some 111,000 Vietnamese and another 207,000 the next year. Also 120,000 Cubans. In 2015 a total of 70,000 refugees entered, primarily from Myanmar, Iraq & Somalia.

America has always been a country settled by immigrants; therefore, it has a large contingency of foreign-born. However, the all-time high came in 2015 when the number reached 41 million or 13% of the population. In 1970 the foreign-born were 5% of the population. In comparison, other countries have higher foreign-born: Australia 25%, Canada 19%. Seventy percent of this growth occurred after 1980. Two-thirds of the foreign-born live in 6 states: CA, NY, TX, FL, IL and NJ, mostly in metropolitan areas. About half live in greater NYC, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Miami or Chicago.

The new ethnics entering the United States are primarily from the countries of the Pacific basin, that is, those countries that basically border the western Pacific Ocean. Where once the newcomers crossed the Atlantic entered through Ellis Island, more and more they are now arriving in California, primarily in Los Angeles where 9 of the state’s 31 million now reside. One in nine is said to be Asian, equaling the Black population.

Many come for political asylum. In 1980 the United States government eased the grounds on which asylum could be won. In 1978 only 3,700 came, but by 1983, 30,000 were arriving.

Americans have always been a soft touch for 'orphaned' children and have often gone to great lengths, time-wise and financially to adopt. Since 1990 the number of international adoptions has increased dramatically and the country of origin has shifted. S. Korea was number one with 2,620 to #4 with 1,716 in 2004. Now China is #1 with over 7 thousand, Russia with 5,865 and Guatamala #3 with 3,264 followed by Kazakhistan, Ukraine, India, Haiti, Ethiopia and Columbia.

In the 1990 census 5.4 million aliens registered from 150 countries. The American Bible Society lists 160 different offerings of Scriptures in many languages because, 

Here in the US, we have a unique opportunity to share God’s Word with people of various ethnic backgrounds -- across the street, through the cities, and all over the country. It is our prayer that the Scriptures ... will help you as you reach out to those around you with God’s life giving light.  

 Harvey and Lavina Hoekstras served the Lord in Africa for thirty years, pioneering the use of cassettes for effective evangelism among several language groups. They trained and equipped nationals to record the NT for people unable to read. In 1989 they organized the Audio Scriptures International to make the same Scriptures available for ethnic ministries in the USA and Canada. Their desire is to...

help meet the challenge of a changing America with its phenomenal increase in peoples with their different languages, religion and cultures. ASI is meeting a vital need by enabling missions, churches and individuals to reach our new neighbors with God’s saving Word in languages they need to understand and believe.

ASI provides the entire NT in 155 languages and portions of Scripture in over 100 other languages.

D.                ASIAN AMERICANS [Asia has some 50 countries]  [18 MILLION Asian Americans include: Chinese 2 M, Filipinos 3 M, Indians 3 M, Vietnamese 1.7 M,   Koreans 1.7 M, Japanese 1.3 M, Pacific Islanders nearly 1 million]

World social and political instability, especially in Asia, was evidenced by 50,000,000 refugees, which by 2002, dropped to 12 million refugees, 6.3 million displaced, 1 million asylum seekers and .5 million returnees.  These ancient lands where history began, bulge with 3.3 billion people or 61 percent of the world's population. Socially, Asians are trying to enter the twenty-first century, but 50 percent of Asian adults are illiterate, and 40 percent of the populace is under fifteen years of age. Politically, unseasoned governments struggle with economic development within and communistic expansionism without. Asia is still the world’s most spiritually needy continent for only 3 in 100 consider themselves to be Christian, while in the world the figure is 3 in 10.

The United Nations has defined a refugee as any person who, because of persecution arising from race, religion, or political opinion, or because of military operations or catastrophe has fled his home and is unable or unwilling to return. Another definition suggests, "A refugee is a soul fleeing from oppression and disaster." A refugee is one who has fled his country. A displaced person is one who fled to another region of his own country.

In 2005, 5% of the US population or 18 million is Asian. By 2020 it will have almost doubled to 6% or 21 million. California is home for more than a third of America’s Asians and is predicted to be less than half white by the year 2000. At this time 40% are foreign born and 1 in 3 does not speak English in the home. Between 1992 and 2002, the US accepted 77% of 1.2 million refugees for resettlement. Canada accepted 10%, and Australia 8%. Forty-nine percent were from Europe, 34% from Asia and 10% from Africa.

1.                  AFGHANISTAN

Many [75,000] Afghanis have come to North America. Most have settled in CA around Los Angeles and San Francisco, New York City and Washington, DC where some 16,000 live. The Afghanis are Muslim.

3.                 CROATIA [1660 REFUGEES]

4.                  INDIA  [3.2 Million] About a million Hindus live in the US, ‘03. They come from the most populous country in the world of over a billion people, speaking 1600 languages. Three quarters of these languages have no gospel in them. Gospel Recordings Network is seeking  in the next 10 years [2016] to put the Gospel into 1000 of these languages.

Some 18 million children live and work on the streets of India, the largest of any country.

6.                  KOREANS  [1,700.000]

Koreans in the US, now officially number 1.7 million in 2015. However, according to Rev. John Ko, General Secretary of the Korean World Mission Council [KWMC], there are 1.6 million Koreans. He indicates that there are some 4,000 Korean churches, 2,400 of which are members of the KWMC. John notes that perhaps 70% of Koreans are Christians and 5% are Buddhist. Korean churches are to be found in almost every state, but California has nearly 1,000, New Jersey 170, Texas 165, Virginia 120, Missouri 110 and Washington 100. One goal of KWMC is to send 1,000 missionaries from their churches.

As professional people they are to be found in many cities across the country, but especially in Los Angeles, where there are 200 Korean churches; Washington, DC, and Chicago, where another 150 Korean language churches have been established. It is interesting to note that many Korean congregations use Anglo church facilities. About half of all Koreans live in the western states, but 23% live in the northeast.

John Song, a Korean working with Galilean Baptist Missions, is planting churches in the Korean community in the Detroit area. Although most émigrés speak some English, the church services are conducted in Korean. Word of Life Press, an arm of The Evangelical Alliance Mission, has established a Korean bookstore in California, where Korean language literature is available. The most extensive Korean work is under the auspices of the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, which has planted some 1,000 churches. The CM&A have planted some 70 churches. The Presbyterian churches are active in Korean church planting.

Of all new ethnics, Koreans are the best churched in North America. This may be because they brought with them their pastors from the strong Korean church in Korea. It may also reflect the fact that the Korean culture emphasizes the family as a tightly knit social unit; therefore, whole households often convert. The Korean church emphasizes leadership training, Bible study and prayer. Korean youth are challenged to be good students; thus, many are enrolled in US seminaries. It is estimated that 70% of Koreans affiliate with the church in urban centers like Los Angeles, New York City and Philadelphia.

9.                  PAKISTAN – 750,000. The Dawoodi Bohras, are a Indo-Pakistan Shiite esoteric sect of Islam, who were former Hindus. A church is being planted among a group of these folks who have settled in Houston, TX.

One hundred and fifty-eight thousand Pakistanis have settled in the US. Most are Muslim and live in New York City, Chicago and other cities in the south and west. LA has 10,000.

10.                RUSSIA

In the Denver area Rev. Anatoly Odnoralov is pastor of the Russian messianic assembly, Hope of Israel. There are 200,000 Russian Jews here.

12.             SRI LANKA---14, 000 

There are thought to be some 10 thousand children between 6 and 14 enslaved in brothels


Southeast Asia includes those countries east of India and south of China as well as the islands of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, down to Australia. Four nations are Islamic: Indonesia, Bangladesh, Borneo and Malaysia. 

1.                  BANGLADESH – 75,000

New York city is home to 75,000 Bangladeshis Muslims. There are some 6.6 million working children in Bangladesh.

2.                  CAMBODIANS – 252,000

There are some 252,000 Cambodians living in the US. In Houston there are 7 Cambodian Baptist churches among others servicing a community of 3,500. New England has a large number of Cambodian Christians. Greater Boston has the second largest Cambodian population outside of Cambodia.  In Lynn, Mass., is located the Cambodian Ministries Resource Center. Classes are being taught in Khmer and English. A Christian Cambodian American Fellowship has been formed to help train Cambodians for ministry.

3.                  FILIPINOS  - 1,800,000

There are 3,000,000 Filipinos in the United States, heavily concentrated in the west. Many Filipinos speak Spanish. They are the second largest Asian Americans most came here during the decade of the 70s. They are widely scattered, nominally Catholic 65% and 21% Protestant although virtually unevangelized. They tend to congregate in cities and create 'Little Manilas'. [see city of LA 15-4].

4.                  HMONG/MIAO – [95,000]

Hmong/Miao are from Thailand. Ninety-five thousand Hmong people have migrated to the United States from Thailand and Laos since 1976. The Hmongs originally lived in southwest China. The China Inland Mission had a large work among them before the Revolution. FEBC began broadcasting in Hmong from Manila in 1958. Over a period of a century the Miaos migrated to other Southeast Asian countries. Reports in 1996 indicate that the tribal people living in the mountains of Southeast Asia are turning to Christ in large numbers despite the relentless persecution. The Hmong were faithful allies during the Vietnam War. Today there are perhaps 300,000 Hmong Christians in Vietnam. There may be another 20,000 in Laos. The persecution comes not only from national leaders, but also tribal leaders who fear the Hmong messianic belief that a foreigner from another land will come and deliver them [Pulse, November 1996].

The Christian and Missionary Alliance ministered to the Hmong in Laos beginning in 1951. By 1975 the Communists overran the country and the Hmong fled to Thailand. Since 1976 they have come to the United States, where many have settled in Southern California, 30,000 around Fresno, and the Midwest. The Twin Cities has the largest concentration of Hmong people outside Asia, about 60,000.

The Christian and Missionary Alliance Church continues to minister to the Hmong through thirty congregations that include several thousand Hmong Christians.

The Overseas Missionary Fellowship maintains a ministry among the Hmong and Mien refugees.

5.                  INDONESIANS---73, 000

A former missionary to Indonesia settled in San Francisco to minister to the Indonesian community. He began by placing an ad in a local newspaper inviting any in the area who would join him to celebrate a holiday having special meaning to the Indonesians. Two hundred responded to the ad and joined in the festivities. Two churches have been planted from the contacts made during that festive occasion.

6.                  LAOS – 500,000

In 1975 the Communists took over Laos and thousands of Laotians fled to nearby Thailand to escape the "yellow fire" of the Vietnamese. By 1980, 120,000 had gathered in refugee camps to wait for opportunities to be relocated in the free world. Three hundred and sixty-six thousand came to the US. Thirteen thousand located in the ghettoes of the Oakland-San Francisco area. Churches and individuals across the United States responded by sponsoring the resettling of refugees in their communities. The Community Bible Church of Dallas sponsored a Laotian family that is now settled in the Laotian community of Dallas. An evangelical Laotian church has been established in East Dallas to service the Laotian community.

Near Atlanta, Georgia, a large Laotian community has developed. The Forest Hills Baptist Church of Decatur has reached out to the Laotians by adding a Laotian-speaking pastor to their staff. He ministers to a congregation of up to 150, which uses the church's facilities. This church sponsors several ethnic churches on their premises.

In Minneapolis there is a Lutheran congregation of Christian Laotians. It is said that three of every ten households of Laotians is Christian.

Columbia Drive Baptist Church in Decatur, Georgia, also ministers to several ethnic groups. Two hundred Laotians fellowship with them, and 70 have joined the church.

KMHMU – 3,000 Kmhmu from Laos number some 3,000. Most of these people live in CA, in the Santa Anna area. Linda Gross, a nationally appointed home missionary with the Assemblies of God indicates they have planted their first church among the Kmhmu and are training their own national pastor.

7.                   MALAYSIA - 25,000

8.                  MYANMAR--- 6,000 [BURMA]

There are said to be 70,000 child soldiers, with some as young as 11. Many Burmese live in Ft. Wayne, IN, according to Rev. Jim Keller who ministers to the Burmese in Ft. Wayne. Utica, NY, is haven for 250 Burmese refugees, primarily Karens

9.                  NEPAL- 6,000

10.                  THAI – 200,000

There are 157,000 Thais in America (1990), 60 percent of whom live in Los Angeles. Ninety-six percent are Buddhist, although only about one-fourth practices their religion. A large Thai Buddhist Temple is located in northern Los Angeles, complete with Buddhas. In the Los Angeles area are 50 Thai restaurants, two newspapers, a radio station, and a bookstore.

About 60 percent of Thais are students, many of whom will return to Thailand. The Bible is available in Thai. Three churches have been established to serve the Los Angeles Thai community. Here is a great opportunity to reach Thais who could return to their native land. Other Thai communities are to be found in New York, Chicago, Baltimore, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington, DC, and in Michigan.

11.             TIBET - 2,000

12.             VIETNAMESE   1,700,000

Since 1975 millions of Indo-Chinese have come to the United States for asylum from intolerable living conditions in their countries. Half of those have settled in California. Seventy percent of the Indo-Chinese refugees are Vietnamese. Congress is now limiting the influx of Indo-Chinese to 100,000 annually. Vietnamese continue to arrive at 4,000 per month, down from 10,000 monthly in 1981. The Vietnamese tend to congregate where others of their heritage are already living. The greatest number have settled in California, but many others are living in fishing villages scattered along the Gulf Coast from Florida to Texas. ‘Little Saigon’ in Los Angeles, is home to 140,000, the largest gathering of Vietnamese outside of Viet Nam. The 2,700,000 Vietnamese [officially 1,297,000] are eager, hardworking, and honest folk who desire to quickly become self-supporting. Not all Americans welcome these industrious people, especially the American fishermen, who feel that the outsiders are encroaching upon an already troubled fishing industry.

The newcomers have found America and Americans bewildering. At times they have been received with kindness, but at other times with hostility. The Ku Klux Klan has been guilty of hurling unfounded accusations that the Vietnamese are communist infiltrators.

Vietnamese refugees want to find the peace and acceptance they have never known. Harvey Arden, of the National Geographic staff, has written of the troubles of one group of refugees. They fled from Haiphong, North Vietnam, in 1954 to Phan Thiet, South Vietnam. Fourteen years later they fled to Vung Tau. By 1975 it was necessary to move again, this time to Guam. They ultimately arrived in the United States where again and again they have sought to find a place where they could put down roots. One refugee summarized their experience, "All our lives we have been at war, have known nothing but war. First it was in Vietnam. Now it is here in America--a war for our people to be accepted."

Refugees have a variety of religious backgrounds, including Buddhism. Taoism, and Confucianism, but all are essentially animistic. Some have been exposed to Roman Catholicism. For instance it is said that half the 80,000 Vietnamese in Houston are Catholic.

Southern Baptists have the largest ministry among these refugees. They have founded thirty-five Vietnamese congregations (1981) by deploying some of their foreign staff, which has learned the language, to work with the home staff.

Christian cassette tapes in Vietnamese and other Indo-Chinese languages designed for refugees are available from Project Share or Gospel Recordings.

Pastor Han Tran is pastor of Vietnamese New Life Church in the Denver area.

F.                 MIDDLE EAST [22 Nations] Arab-Americans are 3.7 million, ’15 [doubled in 20 yrs, 60% from Lebanon, Syria and Egypt], (20% of Arabs live on less than $2.00 per day, two in five are under age 14 and running out of hope). The Christian population of the Middle East has dwindled from 19% of the population in 1900 to 5% in 2015. Sixty percent of the Arab world is under 24 years of age in 2005.

1.                  ARABIA – 4,000

2.                  EGYPT – 73,000 [1,600 Refugees 03] [There are 10 million Christians in Egypt, perhaps 2 million truly committed]

3.                  IRAN – 1,500,000 [1740 Refugees 99]

During the crisis that developed in Iran over the taking of American hostages in the United States embassy, Americans became aware that 320,000 Iranians [officially] are living in the United States. [Iranian Christians International suggests that the Iranian Diaspora is 3,665,000, with 1,500,000 living US]. Before 1979, there were 75,000 Iranian students studying in the United States. That figure has now dropped dramatically.

Iranians have emigrated to the U.S. for the past 50 years. Two-thirds of all American Iranians live in CA, especially in southern CA, where some 600,000 Farsi-speakers live. Over 100,000 live in each of two cities: Washington, DC, and NYC and another 100,000 live in Texas. Perhaps 75% are Muslim, 10% Arminian, 10% Bahai and 5% Jewish. It is estimated that there are some 35 Iranian churches and fellowship groups. Most MBB [Muslim Background Believers] are Iranians.

Farhad Mohyajer, of International Friendship Ministries has planted an Iranian church in Atlanta. Ebrahim Ghaffari of Iranian Christians International, Inc. (ICI) estimates that there are two to three thousand born-again Christians in a community of perhaps 100,000 nominal Christians from an Arminian or Assyrian background. ICI maintains a bookstore of Persian materials for ministry and various fellowship groups for Persian Christians. A Persian hymnal is available as well as cassette tapes of Persian hymns. ICI's quarterly publication, Mojdeh, is published in both English and Persian,  Persian World Outreach has planted the Persian Church of Reseda, CA in 1996. [18644 Sherman Way, 91335]. PWO seeks to mobilize and equip Christian missionaries to minister among Persian-speaking people, through the Iranian Bible School [IBS], internship program, church planting and theological study in Persian through Distance Learning.

4.                  IRAQ —KURDS, Chaldeans 40,000 in LA, largest after Baghdad. 350,000 Iraqis US, many around Chicago, Detroit, San Diego & PHoenix.. Thousands have settled around Nashville, TN, one of the largest Kurdish American communities in the nation. Many of these migrated after the Gulf war when Saddam Hussein gassed a Kurdish uprising and hundreds of thousands fled. Another community of Kurds is to be found in the Shenandoah Valley, around Harrisonburg, VA, where a number were granted asylum. In 2006, 4 Kurds were charged with a felony for sending hundreds of thousands of dollars to Kurds in northern Iraq. [Christians in Iraq in 2003 numbered 1.5 million. In 2016 = 200,000]

Reporters on the battle for Baghdad [2003] suggest there are 300,000 Iraqis in Detroit and another 300,000 in northern NJ.

The Kurds were called Medes in the Bible. Today they number between 30-45 million worldwide. They are the largest unreached people group without a country. Kurdistan after WW 1 was divided between Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. Today some 4 million live in Northern Iraq [Kurdistan] or the northern ‘No-Fly Zone’. There is a Christian community of 400,000 and a church there and the people are very receptive to the Gospel, though Muslim. Some 50,000 live in Canada.

The Christian community of Iraq has suffered extensively. Churches have been bombed and lives threatened; therefore, numbers of Christians have fled, yet there are about a million Christians [3% population] who actively practice their faith. New churches are being established, book stores opened and SAT-7, Christian satellite TV broadcasts shows made by Iraqis for Iraqis. One thousand refugees came 2016.

5                    ISRAEL – 69,000

6.                  JORDAN –20,000

7.                  LEBANON – 310,000 [40,000 in LA]

8.                  PALESTINE – 45,000

In 1981, 110,000 Palestinians had become citizens of the United States. The Palestinians lived in Palestine for hundreds of years before 1948, when their land was divided and renamed Israel, Jordan, West Bank, and Gaza. The majority (67 percent) of the Palestinians continued to live in the area as displaced persons (Jordan, 27 percent; West Bank, 18 percent; Israel, 11 percent; Gaza, 11 percent), but others became refugees in various countries.

Eighty-three percent of the Palestinians who migrated to the United States are now citizens as they have lived here for more than ten years. In fact, 36 percent have lived here more than thirty years.

Many Palestinians are afraid to identify themselves because of the pro-Israel and anti-Palestinian bias that exists in the United States. Even so, they are beginning to join national organizations that exist to promote Palestinian unity. The Palestine Congress of North America, founded in 1979, is the largest, claiming 20,000 members in its many affiliates. Their activities are primarily social in nature.

Twenty years earlier the American Federation of Ramallah Palestine was organized. Its 3,000 associates are more politically active. A third organization, the Association of Arab-American University Graduates (1967) appeals to the 60 percent of Palestinians who belong to the Academic or professional communities. Palestinian Americans speak Arabic, are fluent in English (85 percent), and some are familiar with Hebrew.

Palestinian American citizens are here to stay. Although active in the American political system (40 percent Independent, 30 percent Republican, and 21 percent Democrat), they have not formed lobbying organizations to influence legislation concerning the Middle East. Only 25 percent of American Palestinians regularly support the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), even though all Palestinians believe in creating a home for homeless Palestinians.

The Palestine Liberation Organization (1964) is a political group representing 4.4 million Palestinians with a primary goal to establish a Palestinian state for homeless Arabs. This organization of guerrilla groups and other interested parties was reorganized in 1974 by Arab governments and the United Nations as the representative of the Palestinians.

American Palestinians are nominally Muslim, but "secularism is far stronger than it seems to be among Palestinians in the Middle East and among the PLO leadership." It is questionable that the Palestinians are a homogeneous group. However, John F. Mahoney, executive director of Americans for Middle East Understanding, Inc., declares that Palestinian Americans are declaring themselves as a definable community.

It is essential that evangelical churches become aware of the possible presence of the Palestinians in their community. At present, there is no evidence of any organized effort to present the gospel to the Palestinians.

9.                  SYRIA – 96,000; 12,500 REFUGEES 2016 ENTERED

10.                TURKEY – 64,000 [5,000 Turks live in LA]

11.                YEMEN – 3,500

G.                CARIBBEAN ISLANDERS - 4 million

The Caribbean Sea south of Florida in recent years has come to mean more than a peaceful vacation cruise to the Bahamas or a place where tropical storms are spawned. Fidel Castro has changed all that by using the island of Cuba as a staging point for Marxist revolutionary activity throughout the Caribbean islands and elsewhere. Cubans have fled this communist paradise by the thousands (1,500,000) [officially 860,000] for political asylum in the United States, in FL. (See chapter 5.) Other Caribbean islanders, looking for jobs, have immigrated.                

 H.                AFRICA

1.                  NORTH AFRICA

a)                  MOROCCO – 15,000

b)                  ALGERIA – 2,500

2.                  SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA—In 2004, said to be the only region of world where abject poverty is on the rise to 47%.

a)                  NIGERIA

Some 92,000 Nigerians have emigrated to the U S. World Pulse reported [August 1996] that the Evangelical Missionary Society, a mission agency of the Evangelical Church of West Africa [ECWA], has fielded some 1,000 missionaries. One of those missionary families is ministering to the 12,000 Nigerians living in Chicago. Sunday Bwanhot says that the Nigerians do not fit the Anglo nor the African-American churches. They are living in two cultures and few go to church. The Bwanhots are full SIM missionaries.

b)                  SOMALIA—100,000 [BANTU REGUGEES]

In early 2003, 12,000 Somali Bantu refugees were resettled in US cities in the largest ever resettlement program undertaken out of Africa. They are part of the 70,000 refugees the US planned to resettle in 2003. They had all lived as feudal serfs or slaves and the last decade as refugees. Few are literate. They had lived in squat mud-plaster huts. 2016 there are  100,000 Somalis US.The largest US concentration of Somalians live in the Twin Cities, famous for the Mall of America, the second largest mall in America, with the largest number of stores. There are 30,000 in Minneapolis, where they have lived for years and established their own mall.  Many are taxicab drivers at the airport and are refusing to transport anyone carrying alcohol, saying it is against their Muslim religion. Some say that the drivers are more concerned about protecting Islam than practicing it.  Other groups live in  Columbus, OH, Utica, NY, Washington, DC, Atlanta, San Diego, Toronto and Ottawa, Canada, 45,000.                                 

The plight of the Bantus began centuries ago from west African countries when many migrated east toward the Horn of Africa. During the 18-19th centuries, Arab slavers plundered these peoples and sent them to Zanzibar’s slave market to the Persian Gulf and Middle East. Others made it to Somalia, where they primarily worked the land. When Somalia underwent revolution, many fled to exile in Kenya and Tanzania, in the early 1990s. Refugee cities of 120,000 sprawled for miles. The refugees seldom had passports, any identification or official papers. [Info from Refugees Vol 3, #128, 2002]

c)                  SUDAN

The US accepted 3000 so-called ‘Lost Boys’ of the Sudan, in early 2000.

d)                  ETHIOPIA- 30,000

The largest concentration of Ethiopian Oromos is found in the Twin Cities, 30,000

e)                  LIBERIA 8,000

f)                   GHANNA – 20,000

g)                  KENYA – 4,500

h)                 SIERRA LEON – 4,500

i)                   SOUTH AFRICA – 15,300

j)                    UGANDA – 2,500

The second largest concentration of Liberians in the US is found in the Twin Cities. Also the second largest concentration of Tibetan Buddhists is found in the Twin Cities.

I.                     EUROPE - 4.8 million 

European aliens have fled from every Communist-dominated country. The rate of Christian growth in Europe is one of the lowest worldwide, and the continent is recognized as a "priority mission field." GEM has more than 444 staff members serving in 27 European nations, 4/07.

Albania. About half Christian and half mostly Muslim of the Sufi Becktash sect.


Bosnia -- 100,000


Coratia. -- 400,000

Czech Republic-- 1.3 million in US and Canada



Poland -- 800,000


Russia. -- 900,000 One in a hundred teenagers in Russia is an alcoholic or drug addict. Three hundred thousand are members of criminal gangs.

Serbia. There is a major gathering of 90,000 Serbian Americans living in Steelton, PA, area.

Slovakia— Radio Bible Class is now printing in Slovakian language.


Ukraine--Large groups live in Chicago and Boston.

Yuguslavia  5,000 live in LA


K.                  Conclusion

The 1994 Statistical Abstract reveals that between  the years 1981 and 1990, more than 7,338,000 immigrants came to the United States from 150 countries.  In any given year, there are over 20 million nonimmigrant aliens living here and another million will come, desiring to become citizens.  In fact two to 300,000 do naturalize every year. This substantiates the concept that America is an international mission field. What an opportunity and responsibility we have to reach them with the gospel. This is true for many areas of North America and everyone should work to reach them with the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ.

The question could be asked, “Will the peoples of the world continue to come to North America?” Dr. Roger Stiles, president of Tennessee Temple University, wrote in 1995, “Since 1990, a full 25% of the world has come under new management.” Thus, for many reasons, they will still continue to come.

Several denominations maintain extensive ministries among ethnics. The Southern Baptist Church maintains 4,600 congregations using 87 languages involving 250,000 believers. It is estimated that 40% of the new churches planted by the Assemblies of God is among ethnics. The Christian and Missionary Alliance has a vigorous church planting work among ethnics. The Eastern Mennonite Board of Missions has ministry among Cambodians, Chinese, Laotian and Haitians.

Evangelism of Asian immigrants is more effective than before realized, it would appear, according to David Briggs of the Associated Press. In an article entitled “Strangers in a Christian land” [reprinted in the Tampa Tribune, August 31, 1996], David says, “In unparalleled numbers, Southeast Asian refugees are abandoning their native religion to embrace Christianity in a movement testing the boundaries of interfaith relations in America”. David evidently was quoting an extensive study done by Barry Kosmin, a sociologist at City University of New York, who claims, “the evidence all points to significant gains for Christianity and losses for Buddhism among Asian refugees”.

This optimism is apparent in Houston, TX, where Rev. Phoutha Phothisane, a former Buddhist, is pastor of the First Baptist Lao Mission in Houston. He suggests that the conversions begin in the refugee camps where Christians show them love by befriending the refugee, helping them become settled and then inviting them to come to church. Oun Khongkham of the Lao Presbyterian church says that when he needed help, Buddha did not help, but the Christians did. In Houston there are 7 Cambodian Baptist churches. About 50% of the 80,000 Vietnamese are Catholic.

In Minneapolis there are Methodist, Catholic, Christian Missionary Alliance and Assemblies of God congregations of Lao. Rev. Dhan Thao of the Lutheran church says that he finds 3 of 10 Lao households he visits are already Christian. IBM GLOBAL maintains missionaries working among the Somalis, who are open to the Gospel, although Muslim.

Buddhist monks are reacting to the movement to Christianity, explaining that the Buddhists are spread too thin to create community, that there is a shortage of monks and the older monks do not speak English, and that the Asian has a cultural sense of obligation to those who help. At the least, they are recognizing that there is a turning to Christ. Careful discipleship will be necessary to make sure that it is Christ and Christ alone to whom they turn and not back to a shaman in time of crisis.

The president of the Texas Buddhist Council indicates that changes are being made in Buddhist circles. They are now starting to provide social services, summer camps for the children, Sunday services and teaching the monks to be more agressive in spreading the message of Buddha.

The Gospel Recordings Network [1939] program, ‘Reachout America’ now makes it possible for anyone to give a Gospel testimony to a neighbor in almost any language. They have made it possible for you to say, ‘I can do that’. Their goal is to put the Gospel in every language. So far 200 staff in 50 offices around the world have recordfed in 6,000 languages.

There was a project AD2000 and Beyond Audio Communications Network whose goal was "A Church for Every People and the Gospel for Every People by AD 2000." This project was concluded in 2001, the vision has not died. The Joshuah Project continues to encourage familiarity with the "Unfinished Task". They remind that there are 16,500 People Groups, of which 6,700 remain unreached involving 3 million souls. The web site: maintains some very enlightening charts. Their site SAYS their mission IS, "mapping to inspire, inform and mobilze mission". Note this map of "Religiously Unaffiliated North America: It suggests they are 51 million or 16.4% of our population 2010... 19.6% in 2012... now 2016 ???

Notice their map of "Place of Birth of Foreign-Born Population Living in the US" = 40 million



1. United States Center for World Missions, 1605 E. Elizabeth Drive, Pasadena, CA 91104.

   A. Institute of Chinese Studies Publication: Watchman on the Great Wall (bimonthly) Extended


   B. Chinese World Missions Center Publication: Chinese Missions Tomorrow monthly)

2. Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 2065 Half Day Road, Deerfield, IL 60015

      --Chinese American Program (CAP) to train leaders for American Chinese churches

      --Information about Trinity's summer seminars for Chinese seminarians is available from

      Hoover Wong, 1054 S. King Street,
 Honolulu, Hawaii 96814

3. The Billy Graham Center, Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL 60187, is starting a Chinese

    program for Chinese from overseas.

4. Logos Language Institute, Christian Foreign Language Training, P O Box 374, UMHB/Belton,

    TX, 76513, PHONE 817-939-8320, Michael Thomas, President, self study packets in various

    languages, meets Christian community linguistic needs.

5. Great Commission Theological Seminary, Pasadena, CA, Great Commission Center trains      

    Chinese Christians as pastors of churches and as missionaries.


1. Gospel Recordings [Global Recordings Network], 41823 Enterprise Circle No., Temecula,

   CA 92590 The Bible or portions are available on cassettes. GR indicates that they have recorded

   Gospel messages in over 5600 languages and dialects in the last 50 years. In 2006 they are

   trusting the Lord to do translations in 4400 other languages in this generation.

2. World Missionary Press, P. O. Box 120, New Paris, IN 46553-0120. Scripture booklets in 270

    languages are free to missionaries. Contact Bill Barnes. Ph. 219-831-2111. Fax. 219-831-2161.

3. American Bible Society, P. O. Box 5656 Grand Central Station, NY, NY 10164-0851. They

    provide Bibles, booklets, leaflets, videos and audio cassettes in 68 languages. Ordering 1-800-


4. International Bible Society, P. O. Box 35700, Colorado Springs, CO 80935-3570. They

    provide the Word of God in various media including: print, audio, visual and electronic.

    Available are specialized Scriptures uniquely designed for hard-to-reach people groups. 1-800-

    524-1588. Fax. 1-719-488-0870. Internet: @Gospel Communications Network.

5. Audio Scriptures International, P O Box 28417, San Diego, CA 92198-8417. They provide

    Scriptures on cassette in 250 languages, the NT in 155 languages, Gospels and portions. Call

    for a free catalog and the latest languages available: 1-800-318-7262 or fax: 619-673-8030.

    “Committed to providing the translated Scriptures on cassette in every language”.

6. Audio-Forum, 96 Broad St., Guildford, CT 06437. “The world’s largest selection of self-

    instructional language courses”. 264 courses in 91 languages.

7. SGM International [Scripture Gift Mission], P. O. Box 195575 Winter Springs, FL 32719-5575.

    Ph. 407-365-2265. Fax. 407-365-2399. Specialized booklets and leaflets for evangelism in 357

    languages. They emphasize one on one distribution and send materials free to those who

    cannot pay.

8. Hosanna, Scriptures in all Languages, 2421 Aztec Rd, N. E., Albuquerque, NM 87107-4200.

    Scriptures on cassettes.

9.  Korean World Mission Council, 36-09 Main St, 8-D, Flushing, NY 11354. Ph. 718-762-2055.

     An association of Korean churches which sponsors a World Missions Conference every four

     years at the Billy Graham Center in Wheaton. They expect 300,000 in attendance.

10. North American Council for South Asian Christians, % Centre for Evangelism & World

     Missions, 2146 Robinson St, Suite 1-B, Regina, Saskatchewan S4T 2P7, Canada or P. O. Box

     14907, Philadelphia, PA 19149. An interdenominational group representing 15 denominations

     and 60 ministry agencies whose objective is networking among Christians from Bangla Desh,

     Bhutan, India, Maldive Islands, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, to foster unity, prayer and

11. Spiritual Overseers Service International Corp., Box 2756, Vacaville, CA 95696. PH 707-

     451-9830, Fax 707-451-2827.  Moonsamys  6370 Arlington Blvd, Richmond, CA 94805, PH

     510-233-2112   ministry to Hindus and Muslim

12. Publications Chretiennes of Canada, publishes French literature, including a Our Daily

     Bread type devotional and a 24 pp quarterly journal.

13. MGL Multilingual. South Asian Ministry Catalog, 1411, So. Ferdinand Dr., Tacoma, WA


14. Multi Language Media, P. O. Box 301, Ephrata, PA 17522

15. Catalog of South Asian Ministry, Dept of Messages of God’s Love Multilingual, 1411 S.

     Ferdinand Dr, Tacoma, WA 98405

16. Bangla Bible Correspondence School, Nidhu Das, Dir, P O Box 2844, Grand Rapids, MI


17. Gospel Outreach Ministries, Inc., does research on unreached people groups.

18. Ethnic America Network,, Billy Graham Center, 500 College Ave, Wheaton, IL 60187, maintain database of location of ethnics in America, have summit annually

19. Ambassadors For Christ AFC Bookstore, is the most comprehensive source for Simplified Chinese Bibles and literature,


1. County and City Data Book 1994 [published every 5 years]  for sale from the Superintendent

    of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402   GPO Stock #003-024-

    08753-7.  Statistics are given for ethnic groupings, i.e. Hispanic, Asian, Black, Indian by county

    and further breakdown by major cities.

2. Statistical Abstract of the United States 1994 [published annually], same source.

3. 1990 Census of Population Supplementary Reports, Detailed Ancestry Groups for States,

    #1990 CP-S-1-2, same source.

4. Population Bulletin, United States at Mid-Decade, by Carol J. De Vita,  Vol 50, No. 4, March

    1996. from the Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 520,

    Washington, DC 20009.

5. Immigration and Immigrants, Setting the Record Straight by Michael Fix and Jeffrey Passel,

    published by the Urban Institute. 1994

6. Boston Church Directory, 2nd. ed. 1993, Publisher: Emmanuel Gospel Center, 2 San Juan St,

    PO Box 18245, Boston, MA 02118.

7. Christian Information Network, information on the unreached people groups in the 10/40

    Window.These are the people of the Pacific Rim countries migrating to North America. 11025

    State Hghwy 83, Colo Spgs, CO 80921-3623. Ph 719-522-1040  Fax 719-548-9000   Email  Internet

8. Ethnic America Network, Billy Graham Center, 500 College Ave., Wheaton, IL 60187 Email  and web   [plan summits]

9. ,  















Baptist General Conference World Missions-Home Mis











GENERAL CONFERENCE- Mennonite Central Ofc














HABBM (Hispanic Assoc. of Bilingual Bicultural Min



























Mexican Christian Mission, Inc






MISSION TO NORTH AMERICA-Presbyterian Ch in Americ